ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2001 Vol.(3)

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A 3-D Numerical Model for the Calculation of Water Wave Transformation in Large Area
2001, (3): -.
[Abstract](233)
Abstract:
Based on the integral equation transformed from three dimensional Laplace equation and by the adoption of the division manner of sub- region boundary element method, the numerical computations of the velocity potential of each sub-region are given considering the continuity conditions of potential and normal derivatives at the interface of sub-regions. Therefore, computation of wave deformation in offshore flow field is realized. The present numerical model provides a good solution for the application of boundary element method to the calculation of wave deformation in large areas.
An Improved Simplified Method for Predicting the Hydroelastic Response of Mat Like VLFS
2001, (3): -.
[Abstract](230)
Abstract:
Very Large Floating Structures (VLFS) have received considerable attention recently. Efficient and accurate estimation of their hydroelastic responses in waves is very important for the design. The most efficient approach would obviously be the analytical one. Within the category of analytical approaches, the simplified method proposed by Ohkusu and his colleague are of special characteristics. However, when one studies their methods, several questions arise. The purpose of this paper is to critically study the simplified methods proposed by Ohkusu and his colleague in order to answer these questions. Some problems in their original methods have been found and possible improvements are suggested. It is concluded that the improved simplified method using the same idea of Ohkusu and his colleague could provide a reasonable estimate of the hydroelastic response of mat-like VLFS in a certain range of incident angles of waves.
Analysis of Directional Spectra and Reflection Coefficients in Incident and Reflected Wave Field
2001, (3): -.
[Abstract](228)
Abstract:
In this paper, the modified Bayesian method for the analysis of directional wave spectra and reflection coefficients is verified by numerical and physical simulation of waves. The results show that the method can basically separate the incident and reflected directional spectra. In addition, the effect of the type of wave gage arrays, the number of measured wave properties, and the distance between the wave gage array and the reflection line on the resolution of the method are investigated. Some suggestions are proposed for practical application.
A Study on Hydroelastic Response of Box-Type Very Large Floating Structures
2001, (3): -.
[Abstract](219)
Abstract:
The application of very large floating structure (VLFS) to the utilization of ocean space and exploitation of ocean resources has become one of the issues of great interest in international ocean engineering field. Owing to the advantage of simplicity in structure and low cost of construction and maintenance, box-type VLFS can be used in the calm water area near the coast as the structure configuration of floating airport. In this paper, a 3D linear hydroelastic theory is used to study the dynamic response of box-type VLFS in sinusoidal regular waves. A beam model and a 3D FEM model are respectively employed to describe the dynamic characteristics of the box-type structure in vacuum. A hydrodynamic model (3D potential theory of flexible body) is applied to investigate the effect of different dry models on the hydroelastic response of box-type structure. Based on the calculation of hydroelastic response in regular waves, the rigid body motion displacement, flexible deflection, and the short term and long term wave induced bending moments are also predicted.
Fatigue Crack Propagation in Steel A131 Under Ice Loading of Crushing, Bending and Buckling
2001, (3): -.
[Abstract](240)
Abstract:
Three types of ice loading, which are most commonly present when ice acts on structures, are chosen and simulated for use of fatigue crack propagation tests on offshore structural steel A131. The three types of ice categorized in accordance with the failure modes when acting on structures called crushing ice, bending ice, and buckling ice, respectively. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the fatigue crack propagation behavior of widely used high strength steel A131 for offshore jackets in the loading environment of ice crushing, bending, and buckling. The test results of fatigue crack propagation in steel A131 under these simulated ice loading at temperature 292K. are presented and analyzed in detail in this paper. The amplitude root mean square stress intensity factor is optimized to be the fundamental parameter of fatigue crack propagation for all types of ice loading histories. The results are also compared with constant amplitude fatigue crack propagation conclusions as in wave load mode, and a joint investigation on the results from ice forces, ice-induced vibrations, and ice-induced fatigue crack propagation is conducted. Conclusions are drawn for reference in structural design and material selection for offshore structures in ice environments.
Numerical Simulation and Experimental Investigation on Performance of the Wells Turbine in Irregular Oscillating Flow
2001, (3): -.
[Abstract](232)
Abstract:
The Wells turbine is an axial-flow air-turbine designed to extract energy from ocean waves. An important consideration is the self-starting capability of the Wells turbine, a phenomenon encountered where the turbine accelerate by itself up to a certain speed for the best turbine performance. In order to clarify the self-starting characteristic and running performance of the Wells turbine in an irregular oscillating flow, a numerical simulation process is established in this paper on the rational assumption of quasi-steady flow conditions. Both self-starting characteristics and running performance are obtained through the numerical simulation and subsequently compared with the experimental data achieved on a computer-controlled oscillating flow test rig which could realize some irregular oscillating flow according to the specified spectrum. Results show that the self-starting time decreases with the increase of the significant wave height and the mean frequency of the irregular oscillating flow. Therefore, it is possible to predict accurately the performance of the Wells turbine by computer simulation.
On Radiation Boundary Conditions and Wave Transformation Across the Surf Zone
2001, (3): -.
[Abstract](221)
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to extend the validity of Li's parabolic model (1994) by incorporating a combined energy factor in the mild-slope equation and by improving the traditional radiation boundary conditions. With wave breaking and energy dissipation expressed in a direct form in the equation, the proposed model could provide an efficient numerical scheme and accurate predictions of wave transformation across the surf zone. The radiation boundary conditions are iterated in the model without use of approximations. The numerical predictions for wave height distributions across the surf zone are compared with experimental data over typical beach profiles. In addition, tests of waves scattering around a circular pile show that the proposed model could also provide reasonable improvement on the radiation boundary conditions for large incident angles of waves.
Characteristics of the Function of Ice Force on Vertical Cylindrical Piles
2001, (3): -.
[Abstract](223)
Abstract:
A lot of tests on ice forces on vertical cylindrical piles are conducted in the ice basin of ice laboratory in Tianjin University to identify the characteristics of ice forces on fixed platforms in the Bohai Gulf. A function of ice forces is simplified on basis of test data, and the charateristics of the ice forces including the amplitude of the force and the breaking frequency of the ice sheet is detailed by use of the Fast-Fourier-Transform method. The results show that the ice breaking frequency presents a linear relationship with the ratio of ice moving velocity to ice thickness at low velocities. At high velocities, the frequency remains constant with the increase of the ratio of ice moving velocity to ice thickness. These conclusions are compared those published in literature.
Rain-Flow and Reverse Rain-Flow Counting Method for the Compilation of Fatigue Load Spectrum
2001, (3): -.
[Abstract](230)
Abstract:
The rain-flow counting method is widely used to compile the fatigue load spectrum. The second stage counting of the rain-flow method is a troublesome process. In order to overcome this drawback, the rain-flow and reverse rain-flow counting method is proposed in this paper. In this counting method, the rule for counting of the rain-flow method is modified, so that the sequence of load-time need not be adjusted. This is a valid and useful method to count cycles and compile the load spectrum and it can be widely used in ocean engineering.
Numerical Calculation for Nonlinear Waves in Water of Arbitrarily Varying Depth with Boussinesq Equations
2001, (3): -.
[Abstract](227)
Abstract:
Effect of Sea Level Variation on Calculation of Design Water Level
2001, (3): -.
[Abstract](320)
Abstract:
The long-term variation and seasonal variation of sea level have a notable effect on the calculation of engineering water level. Such an effect is first analyzed in this paper. The maximal amplitude of inter-annual anomaly of monthly mean sea level along the China coast is larger than 60 cm. Both the storm surge disaster and cold wave disaster are seasonal disasters in various regions, so the water level corresponding to the 1% of the cumulative frequency in the cumulative frequency curve of hourly water level data for different seasons in various sea areas is different from design water level, for example, the difference between them reaches maximum in June, July and August for northern sea area, and maximum in September, October and November for Southern China Sea. The hourly water level data of 19 gauge stations along the China coast are analyzed. Firstly, the annual mean sea level for every station is obtained; secondly, linear chan ging rates of annual mean sea level are obtained with the stochastic dynamic method; thirdly, the astronomical tide and storm surge tide are obtained by subtracting the linear fitting part from the original hourly data, finally, two distributions corresponding to the astronomical tide and wind tide are obtained according to whether the astronomical tide and storm tide are correlative or not. So the two check water levels are obtained with the joint probability method. The maximal difference between the two water levels of 100 years' recurrence is more than 30 cm. Both of the two check water levels have disadvantages in the use of observation data, so the mean value is suggested to be taken as the final check water level. A comparison between the two check water levels indicates that the effect of sea level variation upon design water level and check water level is larger than 80 cm at some stations.
Numerical Simulation of Local Scour Around A Large Circular Cylinder Under Wave Action
2001, (3): -.
[Abstract](228)
Abstract:
A horizontal two- dimensional numerical model is developed for estimation of sediment transport and sea bed change around a large circular cylinder under wave action. The wave model is based on an elliptic mild slope equation. The wave-induced current by the gradient of radiation stress is considered and a depth integrated shallow water equation is applied to the calculation of the current. The mass transport velocity and the bed shear stress due to streaming are considered, which are important factors affecting the sediment transport around a structure due to waves, especially in reflective areas. Wave-current interaction is taken into account in the model for computing the bed shear stress. The model is implemented by a finite element method. The results of this model are compared with those from other methods and agree well with experimental data.

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