ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

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Inverse Calculation of Wave-Absorbing Structure Dimensions Based on Extended ANFIS Model
Zheng-lin TIAN, Zhao-chen SUN, Shu-xiu LIANG, Xing-gang WANG
2018, 32(5): 501 -513   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0053-6
A new wave energy dissipation structure is proposed, aiming to optimize the dimensions of the structure and make the reflection of the structure maintain a low level within the scope of the known frequency band. An optimal extended ANFIS model combined with the wave reflection coefficient analysis for the estimation of the structure dimensions is established. In the premise of lower wave reflection coefficient, the specific sizes of the structure are obtained inversely, and the contribution of each related parameter on the structural reflection performance is analyzed. The main influencing factors are determined. It is found that the optimal dimensions of the proposed structure exist, which make the wave absorbing performance of the structure reach a perfect status under a wide wave frequency band.
Flow Separation and Vortex Dynamics in Waves Propagating over A Submerged Quartercircular Breakwater
Xue-lian JIANG, Tian YANG, Qing-ping ZOU, Han-bin GU
2018, 32(5): 514 -523   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0054-5
The interactions of cnoidal waves with a submerged quartercircular breakwater are investigated by a Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) flow solver with a Volume of Fluid (VOF) surface capturing scheme (RANS-VOF) model. The vertical variation of the instantaneous velocity indicates that flow separation occurs at the boundary layer near the breakwater. The temporal evolution of the velocity and vorticity fields demonstrates vortex generation and shedding around the submerged quartercircular breakwater due to the flow separation. An empirical relationship between the vortex intensity and a few hydrodynamic parameters is proposed based on parametric analysis. In addition, the instantaneous and time-averaged vorticity fields reveal a pair of vortices of opposite signs at the breakwater which are expected to have significant effect on sediment entrainment, suspension, and transportation, therefore, scour on the leeside of the breakwater.
Scattering of Oblique Water Waves by Two Unequal Surface-Piercing Vertical Thin Plates with Stepped Bottom Topography
Li-xian WANG, Zheng-zhi DENG, Chen WANG, Peng WANG
2018, 32(5): 524 -535   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0055-4
Based on linear water-wave theory, this study investigated the scattering of oblique incident water waves by two unequal surface-piercing thin vertical rigid plates with stepped bottom topography. By using the matched eigenfunction expansion method and a least square approach, the analytical solutions are sought for the established boundary value problem. The effects of the incidence angle, location of step, depth ratio of deep to shallow waters, and column width between two plates, on the reflection coefficients, the horizontal wave forces acting on the two plates, and the mean surface elevation between the two plates, are numerically examined under a variety of wave conditions. The results show that the existence of the stepped bottom between two plates considerably impacts the hydrodynamic performances of the present system. It is found that the effect of stepped bottom on the reflection coefficient of the present two-plate structure is evident only with waves of the low dimensionless frequency. Moreover, the influence of the step location on the hydrodynamic performance of the present two-plate structure is slight if the step is placed in between the two plates.
Strength Analysis on Brace Structure for Semi-Submersible in Consideration of Wave Slamming
Fa-li HUO, Zhi YAO, Jian ZHANG, Jun-wei WANG, Bin DONG
2018, 32(5): 536 -545   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0056-3
Slamming on bracings of column stabilized units shall be considered as a possible limiting criterion under transit condition based on the requirements in DNV-OS-C103. However, the wave slamming loads under survival condition were ignored for the strength analysis of the brace structures in many semi-submersible projects. In this paper, a method of strength analysis of brace structure is proposed based on the reconstruction and extrapolation of numerical model. The full-scale mooring system, the wind, wave and current loads can be considered simultaneously. Firstly, the model tests of the semi-submersible platform in wind tunnel and wave tanker have been carried out. Secondly, the numerical models of the platform are reconstructed and extrapolated based on the results of model tests. Then, a nonlinear numerical analysis has been conducted to study the wave slamming load on brace in semi-submersible platform through the reconstructed and extrapolated numerical model. For the randomness of wave load, ten sub-cases under each condition have been carried out. The value of the 90% Gumble distribution values of the ten sub-cases are used. Finally, the strength on brace structure has been analyzed considering the wave slamming. The wave slamming loads have been compared between the survival condition and transit condition with the method. The results indicate that wave slamming under survival condition is more critical than that under transit condition. Meanwhile, the wave slamming is significant to the structural strength of the brace. It should be overall considered in the strength analysis of the brace structure.
Numerical Simulation on the Resistance Performance of Ice-Going Container Ship Under Brash Ice Conditions
Chun-yu GUO, Zuo-tian ZHANG, Tai-ping TIAN, Xia-yan LI, Da-gang ZHAO
2018, 32(5): 546 -556   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0057-2
Ice resistance prediction is a critical issue in the preliminary design of ships navigating brash ice conditions, which is closely related to the safety of a ship to navigate encounter brash ice, and has significant effects on the kinds of propellers and motor power needed. In research on this topic, model tests and full-scale tests on ships have thus far been the primary approaches. In recent years, the application of the finite element method (FEM) has also attracted interest. Some researchers have conducted numerical simulations on ship–ice interactions using the fluid–structure interaction (FSI) method. This study used this method to predict and analyze the resistance of an ice-going ship, and compared the results with those of model ship tests conducted in a towing tank with synthetic ice to discuss the feasibility of the FEM. A numerical simulation and experimental methods were used to predict the brash ice resistance of an ice-going container ship model in a condition with three concentrations of brash ice (60%, 80%, and 90%). A comparison of the results yielded satisfactory agreement between the numerical simulation and the experiments in terms of both observed phenomena and resistance values, indicating that the proposed numerical simulation has significant potential for use in related studies in the future.
An Integrated Hydrodynamics and Control Model of A Tethered Underwater Robot
Jia-ming WU, Ying XU, Long-bin TAO, Miao YU, Yi-zhe DOU
2018, 32(5): 557 -569   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0058-1
An integrated hydrodynamics and control model to simulate tethered underwater robot system is proposed. The governing equation of the umbilical cable is based on a finite difference method, the hydrodynamic behaviors of the underwater robot are described by the six-degrees-of-freedom equations of motion for submarine simulations, and a controller based on the fuzzy sliding mode control (FSMC) algorithm is also incorporated. Fluid motion around the main body of moving robot with running control ducted propellers is governed by the Navier–Stokes equations and these nonlinear differential equations are solved numerically via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. The hydrodynamics and control behaviors of the tethered underwater robot under certain designated trajectory and attitude control manipulation are then investigated based on the established hydrodynamics and control model. The results indicate that satisfactory control effect can be achieved and hydrodynamic behavior under the control operation can be observed with the model; much kinematic and dynamic information about tethered underwater robot system can be forecasted, including translational and angular motions of the robot, hydrodynamic loading on the robot, manipulation actions produced by the control propellers, the kinematic and dynamic behaviors of the umbilical cable. Since these hydrodynamic effects are fed into the proposed coupled model, the mutual hydrodynamic influences of different portions of the robot system as well as the hydrological factors of the undersea environment for the robot operation are incorporated in the model.
Hydrodynamics of A Flexible Riser Undergoing the Vortex-Induced Vibration at High Reynolds Number
Tie REN, Meng-meng ZHANG, Shi-xiao FU, Lei-jian SONG
2018, 32(5): 570 -581   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0059-0
This study proposed a method to obtain hydrodynamic forces and coefficients for a flexible riser undergoing the vortex-induced vibration (VIV), based on the measured strains collected from the scale-model testing with the Reynolds numbers ranging from 1.34E5 to 2.35E5. The riser is approximated as a tensioned spatial beam, and an inverse method based on the FEM of spatial beam is adopted for the calculation of hydrodynamic forces in the cross flow (CF) and inline (IL) directions. The drag coefficients and vortex-induced force coefficients are obtained through the Fourier Series Theory. Finally, the hydrodynamic characteristics of a flexible riser model undergoing the VIV in a uniform flow are carefully investigated. The results indicate that the VIV amplifies the drag coefficient, and the drag coefficient does not change with time when the CF VIV is stable. Only when the VIVs in the CF and IL directions are all steady vibrations, the vortex-induced force coefficients keep as a constant with time, and under " lock-in” condition, whether the added-mass coefficient changes with time or not, the oscillation frequency of the VIV keeps unchanged. It further shows that the CF excitation coefficients at high frequency are much smaller than those at the dominant frequency, while, the IL excitation coefficients are in the same range. The axial distributions of the excitation and damping region at the dominant frequency and high frequency are approximately consistent in the CF direction, while, in the IL direction, there exists a great difference.
Fully Nonlinear Time Domain Analysis for Hydrodynamic Performance of An Oscillating Wave Surge Converter
Shi-yan SUN, Shi-li SUN, Guo-xiong WU
2018, 32(5): 582 -592   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0060-7
The hydrodynamic behaviour of an oscillating wave surge converter (OWSC) in large motion excited by nonlinear waves is investigated. The mechanism through which the wave energy is absorbed in the nonlinear system is analysed. The mathematical model used is based on the velocity potential theory together with the fully nonlinear boundary conditions on the moving body surface and deforming free surface. The problem is solved by the boundary element method. Numerical results are obtained to show how to adjust the mechanical properties of the OWSC to achieve the best efficiency in a given wave, together with the nonlinear effect of the wave height. Numerical results are also provided to show the behaviour of a given OWSC in waves of different frequencies and different heights.
Research on Flexural Behavior of Coral Aggregate Reinforced Concrete Beams
Hai-yan MA, Bo DA, Hong-fa YU, Zhang-yu WU
2018, 32(5): 593 -604   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0061-6
Through the flexural behavior test of coral aggregate reinforced concrete beams (CARCB) and ordinary Portland reinforced concrete beams (OPRCB), and based on the parameters of concrete types, concrete strength grades and reinforcement ratios, the crack development, failure mode, midspan deflection and flexural capacity were studied, the relationships of bending moment-midspan deflection, load-longitudinal tensile reinforcement strain, load-maximum crack width were established, and a calculation model for the flexural capacity of CARCB was suggested. The results showed that with the increase in the reinforcement ratio and concrete strength grade, the crack bending moment (Mcr) and ultimate bending moment (Mu) of CARCB gradually increased. The characteristics of CARCB and OPRCB are basically the same. Furthermore, through increasing the concrete strength grade and reinforcement ratio, Mcr/Mu could be increased to delay the cracking of CARCB. As the load increased, crack width (w) would also increase. At the beginning of the loading, w increased slowly. And then it increased rapidly when the load reached to the ultimate load, which then led to beam failure. Meanwhile, with a comprehensive consideration of the effects of steel corrosion on the loss of steel section and the decrease of steel yield strength, a more reasonable calculation model for the flexural capacity of CARCB was proposed.
Effects of Degrees of Motion Freedom on Free-Fall of A Sphere in Fluid
Lei LIU, Jian-min YANG, Hai-ning LYU, Xin-liang TIAN, Tao PENG
2018, 32(5): 605 -613   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0062-5
Free-fall of a sphere in fluid is investigated at a Galileo number of 204 by direct numerical simulations (DNS). We mainly focus on the effects of different degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) of the sphere motion during free-fall. The characteristics of free-fall are compared with those of flow past a fixed sphere. Additional numerical tests are conducted with constraints placed on the translational or rotational DOFs of the sphere motion to analyze different DOFs of sphere motion. The transverse motion contributes significantly to the characteristics of free-fall; it results in the retardation of the vortex shedding, leading to the decrease of the Strouhal number. In addition, the transversal sphere motion exhibits the tendency to promote the sphere rotation. On the contrary, the effects of the sphere rotation and vertical oscillations during free-fall are negligible.
Analysis on Link Between the Macroscopic and Microscopic Air–Water Properties in Self-Aerated Flows
Wang-ru WEI, Wei-lin XU, Jun DENG, Zhong TIAN, Fa-xing ZHANG
2018, 32(5): 614 -623   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0063-4
Self-aeration in high-speed free surface flows occurs commonly and is of interest to ocean engineering, hydraulic engineering, and environmental engineering. For two-phase air–water flows, macroscopic air–water flow properties develop gradually, accompanied by the change of microscopic air–water structures. In this article, representational experimental studies on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of self-aerated open-channel flows are summarized and compared. The isolated effect of the flow Reynolds number and air quantity on the differences in air count rate and chord size are analyzed and discussed. The results show that the characterized flow depth y50, affected by the turbulence transfer, is a specific criterion to distinguish the interior air–water structure development. Two distinct linear trends of self-aeration are found, depending on the y50/y90 variation with a breaking point at Cmean = 0.50. The air count rate and size scale in self-aerated flows are affected by the air quantity of self-aerated flows, even with identical flow Reynolds numbers. Thus, a specific parameter is proposed to assess the air–water structures and a series of self-similarity relationships in self-aeration properties are obtained. The link between macroscopic and microscopic air–water properties results in significant scale effect on air–water structures in self-aerated flows.
Experimental Study on Crescent Waves Diffracted by A Circular Cylinder
Kai YAN, Liang-duo SHEN, Jin-wei SHANG, Liang MA, Zhi-li ZOU
2018, 32(5): 624 -632   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0064-3
Crescent waves often observed on the sea surface are unusual wave pattern induced by the instability of Stokes wave. The paper presents the experimental results of the wave field around a circular cylinder generated by the diffraction of crescent wave in order to examine the difference of diffracted crescent waves from the commonly-used diffracted Stokes waves. The results show that with the existence of the cylinder, the crescent wave pattern can still get fully developed, and with the presence of this type of wave pattern, the symmetry breaking of the wave amplitude distribution occurs and there are extra wave components at the frequencies of 0.5 , 1.5 and 2.5 ( is the frequency of Stokes waves) appearing in the wave amplitude spectrum.

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