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Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Square Heaving Plates with Opening Under Forced Oscillation
Long-fei CONG, Bin TENG
2019, 33(6) :637-648. doi: 10.1007/s13344-019-0063-z
[Abstract](243) [FullText HTML] (43) [PDF 5748KB](16)
The existence of the heaving plates can improve the heaving motion performance of an offshore structure significantly by providing both extra added mass and damping. In the current research, numerical investigation is carried out on the hydrodynamic characteristics of both isolated square heaving plate and double square heaving plates with opening by an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method. The effects on hydrodynamic performance of plates due to Keulegan−Carpenter (KC) number, frequency number, opening ratio, opening distribution and spacing of plates are examined. It is found that the heaving plates with optimized opening ratio can provide additional damping compared with the plates without opening. Better hydrodynamic characteristics of double plates can be obtained with the increase of plate spacing.
Structural Stress Monitoring and FEM Analysis of the Cutting Operation of the Main Bracket of A Semi-Submersible Platform
Yu-feng KOU, Jian-min YANG, Sheng-wen XU, Tao PENG, Jun LIU, Zhuo-wei WU
2019, 33(6) :649-659. doi: 10.1007/s13344-019-0062-0
[Abstract](199) [FullText HTML] (40) [PDF 20334KB](11)
For a semi-submersible platform in repair, the eight old main brackets which connect columns with pontoons need to be replaced by new ones. In order to ensure the safety of the cutting operation of the old main bracket and calculate the initial stress condition of new main bracket, the structural stress monitoring of eight key spots is carried out, and then the calibrated finite element model is established according to the field monitoring results. Before cutting the main bracket and all associated structures, eight rectangular rosettes were installed, and a tailored cutting scheme was proposed to release the initial stress, in which the main bracket and associated column and pontoon plates were partly cut. During the cutting procedure, the strains of the monitoring spots were measured, and then the structural stress of the monitored spots were obtained. The stress variation characteristics at different spots during the initial cutting operation were shown and the initial stress condition of the monitored spots was figured out. The loading and support conditions of the semi-submersible platform were calibrated based on the measured initial stress condition, which made the finite element model more credible. The stress condition with the main bracket and associated structures being entirely cut out is analyzed by the Finite Element Method (FEM), which demonstrates the cutting operation to be safe and feasible. In addition, the calibrated finite element model can be used to calculate the initial stress condition of the new main bracket, which will be very helpful for the long-term stress monitoring on the main bracket.
Wave Radiation by A Submerged Ring Plate in Water of Finite Depth
Pei-wen CONG, Ying-yi LIU, Ying GOU, Bin TENG
2019, 33(6) :660-672. doi: 10.1007/s13344-019-0064-y
[Abstract](187) [FullText HTML] (40) [PDF 15843KB](12)
A plate submerged at a certain depth underneath the sea surface has been proposed as a structure type for different purposes, including motion response reduction, wave control, and wave energy harvesting. In the present study, the three-dimensional wave radiation problem is investigated in the context of the linear potential theory for a submerged ring plate in isolation or attached to a floating column as an appendage. In the latter case, the ring plate is attached at a certain distance above the column bottom. The structure is assumed to undergo a heave motion. An analytical model is developed to solve the wave radiation problem via the eigenfunction expansion method in association with the region-matching technique. With the velocity potential being available, the hydrodynamic coefficients, such as added mass and radiation damping, are obtained through the direct pressure integration. An alternative solution of radiation damping has also been developed in this study, in which the radiation damping is related to the Kochin function in the wave radiation problem. After validating the present model, numerical analysis is performed in detail to assess the influence of various plate parameters, such as the plate size and submergence depth. It is noted that the additional added mass due to the attached ring plate is larger than that when the plate is in isolation. Meanwhile, the radiation damping of the column for the heave motion can vanish at a specific wave frequency by attaching a ring plate, corresponding to a condition that there exist no progressive waves in the exterior region.
Impacts of Different Dynamic Factors on the Saltwater Intrusion in the Northern Branch of the Yangtze Estuary
Jin-hua WANG, De-bin ZHANG, Wei-sheng ZHANG, Jin-shan ZHANG
2019, 33(6) :673-684. doi: 10.1007/s13344-019-0065-x
[Abstract](178) [FullText HTML] (37) [PDF 16470KB](2)
A 3-D baroclinic numerical model is established to study the temporal and spatial distribution of salinity in the Northern Branch (NB) of the Yangtze Estuary (YE) in response to river runoff, wind and currents. The idealized, process-oriented studies show that the lower river runoff in the dry season is the main driving factor for the spilling over from the NB to the Southern Branch (SB). The NB takes longer time to get in dynamic stable state compared with the SB, as the runoff transfers from the wet season to the dry season. The vertical stratification intensity of the NB has obvious periodic phenomena in the dry season, and the stratification strength is enhanced under the action of low runoff and north wind, which further weakens the vertical transport of water. Momentum balance analysis suggested that the landward net flux increases when considering the influence of the moderate north wind, and the landward flux will enhance if considering the boundary current during the spring tide. With the influence of the boundary current, increases the average salinity of the NB, as well as the intrusion degree from the NB to the SB. This indicates that the nearshore ocean current of the Yellow Sea is an important factor affecting the saltwater intrusion in the NB of the YE.
Upper Bound Solutions for Uplift Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Suction Caisson Foundation
Guo-liang DAI, Wen-bo ZHU, Qian ZHAI, Wei-ming GONG, Xue-liang ZHAO
2019, 33(6) :685-693. doi: 10.1007/s13344-019-0066-9
[Abstract](180) [FullText HTML] (41) [PDF 9939KB](6)
Suction caisson foundation derives most of their uplift resistance from passive suction developed during the pullout movement. It was observed that the passive suction generated in soil at the bottom of the caisson and the failure mode of suction caisson foundation subjecting pullout loading behaves as a reverse compression failure mechanism. The upper bound theorems have been proved to be a powerful method to find the critical failure mechanism and critical load associated with foundations, buried caissons and other geotechnical structures. However, limited attempts have been reported to estimate the uplift bearing capacity of the suction caisson foundation using the upper bound solution. In this paper, both reverse failure mechanisms from Prandtl and Hill were adopted as the failure mechanisms for the computation of the uplift bearing capacity of the suction caisson. New equations were proposed based on both failure mechanisms to estimate the pullout capacity of the suction caisson. The proposed equations were verified by the test results and experimental data from published literature. And the two solutions agree reasonably well with the other test results. It can be proved that both failure mechanisms are reasonably and more consistent with the actual force condition.
An Analytical Solution for Wave Transformation Over Axi-Symmetric Topography
San Sieu CUONG, Jen-Yi CHANG, Chia-Cheng TSAI, Wan-Rong CHOU
2019, 33(6) :694-703. doi: 10.1007/s13344-019-0067-8
[Abstract](172) [FullText HTML] (39) [PDF 5560KB](3)
The present study considers wave scattering phenomena around a cylindrical island mounted on a general axi-symmetric topography or a general submerged truncated axi-symmetric shoal based on the mild-slope equation. The method of separation of variables and Taylor series expansion are invoked to find the approximate solution to the variable water depth region which varies proportionally to an arbitrary power of radial distance. Validations against the solutions for the combined wave refraction and diffraction around a cylindrical island mounted on a paraboloidal shoal of Liu et al. in 2004 and the scattering and trapping of wave energy by a submerged truncated paraboloidal shoal of Lin and Liu in 2007 show excellent agreements as the power of radial distance being equal to two. For the solutions of wave refraction and diffraction around a cylindrical island mounted on a shoal with depth proportionally to an arbitrary power of radial distance, good agreements with Zhai et al.’s (2013) solutions are demonstrated. Since the robustness of the assumption of a general axi-symmetric geometry based on an arbitrary power variability of the radial distance, the present solution can be very conveniently employed to investigate the effects of bottom topography on wave scattering and trapping patterns.
Dynamic Behaviors of A Marine Riser Under Two Different Frequency Parametric Excitations
Wu-de XIE, Wan-hai XU, Li-bin ZHAI, Xi-feng GAO, Zeng-wei XU
2019, 33(6) :704-712. doi: 10.1007/s13344-019-0068-7
[Abstract](121) [FullText HTML] (39) [PDF 13610KB](5)
The marine risers are often subjected to parametric excitations from the fluctuation top tension. The top tension on the riser may fluctuate with multiple frequencies caused by irregular waves. In this paper, the influence between different frequency components in the top tension on the riser system is theoretically simulated and analyzed. With the Euler−Bernoulli beam theory, a dynamic model for the vibrations of the riser is established. The top tension is set as fluctuating with time and it has two different frequencies. The influences from the fluctuation amplitudes, circular frequencies and phase angles of these frequency components on the riser system are analyzed in detail. When these two frequencies are fluctuating in the stable regions, the riser system may become unstable because ω1+ω2≈2Ωn. The fluctuation amplitudes of these frequencies have little effect on the components of the vibration frequencies of the riser. For different phase angles, the stability and dynamic behaviors of the riser would be different.
Fluid−Structure Interaction Analysis of Flexible Plate with Partitioned Coupling Method
Lim W.Z., , Xiao R.Y.
2019, 33(6) :713-722. doi: 10.1007/s13344-019-0069-6
[Abstract](120) [FullText HTML] (38) [PDF 18347KB](11)
The development and rapid usage of numerical codes for fluid−structure interaction (FSI) problems are of great relevance to researchers in many engineering fields such as civil engineering and ocean engineering. This multidisciplinary field known as FSI has been expanded to engineering fields such as offshore structures, tall slender structures and other flexible structures applications. The motivation of this paper is to investigate the numerical model of two-way coupling FSI partitioned flexible plate structure under fluid flow. The adopted partitioned method and approach utilized the advantage of the existing numerical algorithms in solving the two-way coupling fluid and structural interactions. The flexible plate was subjected to a fluid flow which causes large deformation on the fluid domain from the oscillation of the flexible plate. Both fluid and flexible plate are subjected to the interaction of load transfer within two physics by using the strong and weak coupling methods of MFS and Load Transfer Physics Environment, respectively. The oscillation and deformation results have been validated which demonstrate the reliability of both strong and weak method in resolving the two-way coupling problem in contribution of knowledge to the feasibility field study of ocean engineering and civil engineering.
Numerical Investigation on Vortex-Induced Rotations of A Triangular Cylinder Using An Immersed Boundary Method
Hua-kun WANG, Yu-hao YAN, Can-ming CHEN, Chun-ning JI, Qiu ZHAI
2019, 33(6) :723-733. doi: 10.1007/s13344-019-0070-0
[Abstract](111) [FullText HTML] (39) [PDF 18206KB](9)
A numerical study of vortex-induced rotations (VIRs) of an equivalent triangular cylinder, which is free to rotate in the azimuthal direction in a uniform flow, is presented. Based on an immersed boundary method, the numerical model is established, and is verified through the benchmark problem of flow past a freely rotating rectangular body. The computation is performed for a fixed reduced mass of m*=2.0 and the structural stiffness and damping ratio are set to zero. The effects of Reynolds number (Re=25‒180) on the characteristics of VIR are studied. It is found that the dynamic response of the triangular cylinder exhibits four distinct modes with increasing Re: a rest position, periodic rotational oscillation, random rotation and autorotation. For the rotational oscillation mode, the cylinder undergoes a periodic vibration around an equilibrium position with one side facing the incoming flow. Since the rotation effect, the outset of vortex shedding from cylinder shifts to a much lower Reynolds number. Further increase in Re leads to 2P and P+S vortex shedding modes besides the typical 2S pattern. Our simulation results also elucidate that the free rotation significantly changes the drag and lift forces. Inspired by these facts, the effect of free rotation on flow-induced vibration of a triangular cylinder in the in-line and transverse directions is investigated. The results show that when the translational vibration is coupled with rotation, the triangular cylinder presents a galloping response instead of vortex-induced vibration (VIV).
Proof of Six-Wave Resonance Conditions of Ocean Surface Gravity Waves in Deep Water
Guo-bin LIN, Hu HUANG
2019, 33(6) :734-738. doi: 10.1007/s13344-019-0071-z
[Abstract](110) [FullText HTML] (37) [PDF 1069KB](3)
A necessary big step up in the modern water wave theories and their widespread application in ocean engineering is how to obtain 6-wave resonance conditions and to prove it. In the light of the existing forms and characteristics of 3-wave, 4-wave and 5-wave resonance conditions, the 6-wave resonance conditions are proposed and proved for currently a maximum wave-wave resonance interactions of the ocean surface gravity waves in deep water, which will be indispensable to both the Kolmogorov spectrum of the corresponding universal wave turbulence and a synthetic 4-5-6-wave resonant model for the ocean surface gravity waves.
Analysis of Penetration Depth of Pipeline on Cohesive Soil Seabed
Qi-yi ZHANG, Yuan ZHANG, Yun-qiang YAN, Shao-xuan WU
2019, 33(6) :739-745. doi: 10.1007/s13344-019-0072-y
[Abstract](104) [FullText HTML] (40) [PDF 9268KB](1)
This paper conducts laboratory tests to investigate detailedly the soil deformation law around the pipeline and its penetration depth under self-gravity. The seabed model is prepared by consolidating saturated soil using vacuum pressure technology, and the pipeline models are specifically designed to possess different radii. Based on the experimental results and digital images, the soil deformation process is analyzed and summarized, a kinematic admissible velocity field is given and an upper bound solution of pipeline penetration depth and soil reaction force is derived and proposed in this paper. In order to verify the accuracy of the upper bound solution deduced in this paper, a comparison is made among some published results and the solution suggested in this paper, the comparison results confirm that the upper bound solution and the soil failure mode are reasonable. Finally two empirical formulas are given in this paper to estimate the soil reaction force of seabed and the penetration depth of pipeline. The empirical formulas are in agreement with the upper bound solution derived in this paper, and the conclusion of this paper could provide some theoretical reference for the further study of the interaction between the pipeline and the soil.
Analysis of Influencing Factors on Lift Coefficients of Autonomous Sailboat Double Sail Propulsion System Based on Vortex Panel Method
Zhao-yang SUN, Jian-cheng YU, Ai-qun ZHANG, Qian-long JIN
2019, 33(6) :746-752. doi: 10.1007/s13344-019-0073-x
[Abstract](115) [FullText HTML] (40) [PDF 3147KB](8)
Sail is the core part of autonomous sailboat and wing sail is a new type of sail. Wing sail generates not only propulsion but also lateral force and heeling moment. The latter two will affect the navigation status and bring resistance. Double sail can effectively reduce the center of wind pressure and heeling moment. In order to study the effect of distance between two sails, airfoil and attack angle on the total lift coefficient of double sail propulsion system, pressure coefficient distribution and lift coefficient calculation model have been established based on vortex panel method. By using the basic finite solution, the fluid dynamic forces on the two-dimensional sails are computed. The results show that, the distance in the range of 0 to 1 time chord length, when using the same airfoil in the fore and aft sail, the total lift coefficient of the double sail increases with the increase of distance, finally reaches a stable value in the range of one to three times chord length. Lift coefficients of thicker airfoils are more sensitive to the change of distance. The thicker the airfoil, the longer distance is required of the total lift coefficient toward stable. When different airfoils are adopted in fore and aft sail, the total lift coefficient increases with the increase of the thickness of aft sail. The smaller the thickness difference is, the more sensitive to the distance change the lift coefficient is. The thinner the fore sail is, the lower the influence will be on the lift coefficient of aft sail.
Methods to Improve the Long Distance Time-Varying Channel Transmission Performance of Expendable Profiler
Yu ZHENG, Xiao-yang ZHANG, Xiao-rui WANG, Xing-xin GUO, Hong-zhi LI
2019, 33(6) :753-761. doi: 10.1007/s13344-019-0074-9
[Abstract](127) [FullText HTML] (37) [PDF 4762KB](3)
To improve the transmission performance of XCTD channel, this paper proposes a method to measure directly and fit the channel transmission characteristics by using frequency sweeping method. Sinusoidal signals with a frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 kHz and an interval of 100 Hz are used to measure transmission characteristics of channels with lengths of 300 m, 800 m, 1300 m, and 1800 m. The correctness of the fitted channel characteristics by transmitting square wave, composite waves of different frequencies, and ASK modulation are verified. The results show that when the frequency of the signal is below 1500 Hz, the channel has very little effect on the signal. The signal compensated for amplitude and phase at the receiver is not as good as the uncompensated signal. Alternatively, when the signal frequency is above 1500 Hz, the channel distorts the signal. The quality of signal compensated for amplitude and phase at receiver is better than that of the uncompensated signal. Thus, we can select the appropriate frequency for XCTD system and the appropriate way to process the received signals. Signals below 1500 Hz can be directly used at the receiving end. Signals above 1500 Hz are used after amplitude and phase compensation at the receiving end.

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