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For simulating fresh and salt water mixing in estuaries, a three dimensional nonlinear baroclinic numerical model is developed, in which the gradients of horizontal pressure contain the gradient of barotropic pressure arising from the gradi-ent of tidal level and the gradient of baroclinic pressure due to the gradient of salinity. The Eulerian-Lagrangian method is employed to descretize both the momentum equations of tidal motion and the equation of salt water diffusion so as to im-prove the computational stability and accuracy. The methods to provide the boundary conditions and the initial conditions are proposed, and the criterion for computational stability of the salinity fields is presented. The present model is used for modeling fresh and salt water mixing in the Yangtze Estuary. Computations show that the salinity distribution has the characteristics of partial mixing pattern, and that the present model is suitable for simulalion of fresh and salt waler mixing in ihe Yanglze Esluary.
Internal tide is one of the major oceanic phenomena. Determination of internal tide is important for theoretical study and for ocean engineering research. As an inverse problem, extraction of internal tidal currenls from sea currents is diffi-cult. In this paper, a method is developed to extract internal tidal currents from a portion of the sea current profile based on the fact that the directions of internal tidal currents above and below the thermocline are inverse. Sea current data col-lected from the South China Sea is processed with this method. The internal tidal currents and the depth of the thermocline are successfully extracted. The depth of the thermocline determined is in good agreement with that measured in 1959.
Subsea pipelay has a relatively long history. In recent years, there has been a domestic need for the laying of large diameter thin wall pipes. A land-based trial for the large diameter thin wall specimen pipe is described in this paper. Re-gression analysis is performed for the trial data and the formula derived can express the trial data very well. Numerical analysis is adopted to compute various trial conditions. Then the numerical model is revised with the trial results, which are consistent with each other. After summarization of the results of trial and numerical analysis, the characteristics are described of the spatial configuration during the laying of the pipe and it is concluded that the maximum strain appears around the center of the raised pipeline. In the end, a reference Standard, which limits the maximum stress below the yield stress is provided.
In this paper, the buoyancy, kinetic properties and stability of air floated structures have been studied by theoretical and experimental methods. The ecpjations for calculation of the buoyancy of the air floated buoy are derived according to the Boyler law and the equilibrium equations of the air floated structure are established. Through simplification of the air floated structure as a single freedom rigid body and spring system, the natura! period of heaving and some kinetic properties are discussed. In the stability analysis, the formulas for calculation of the meta centric height are presented. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the data observed from the model test and prototype test. The air buoyancy de-crease coefficient presented in this paper has a large influence on the floating state, stability and dynamic properties of the air floated structure. The stability of the air floated structure can also be judged by the parameter of meta centric height, and calculations show that the air floated structure is less stable than the conventional float.
In this paper, the theoretical analysis and experimental studies are employed to investigate the reflection characteris-tics of partial standing waves caused by wave overtopping and sloping top of structures. Based on the principle of conser-vation of wave energy flux, the third-order Stokes wave theory is used to formulate the reflection coefficient at wave overtopping; the calculation results are regressed into an applied expression. A series of experiments of wave reflection for a vertical-wall structure with chamfered and overhanging upper sections are carried out to investigate the influence of top slope on wave reflection. The regularity of variation of wave reflection in this case is analysed based on the experimental results.
The analytical method (AM) for separation of composite waves is presented based on the Hilbert transform. It is ap-plicable to both regular and irregular trains of waves. The wave data series measured with two wave gauges in the experi-ments are separated into two series of incident and reflected waves. Then, the reflection coefficient can be easily ob-tained. The arrival of reflected waves can also be detected for improveraent of the accuracy of the reflection coefficient. The reflection performance of the physical model can be estimated exactly without calculation of wave height and phase difference. Numerical samples developed to test the method are proved to be accurate. Physical experiments are conduct-ed and compared with Goda s method and satisfactory results are obtained.
Breaking waves are a powerful agent for generating turbulence that plays an important role in many fluid dynamical processes, particularly in the mixing of materials. Breaking waves can dislodge sediment and throw it into suspension, which will then be carried by wave-induced steady current and tidal flow. In order to investigate sediment suspension by breaking waves, a numerical model based on large-eddy-simulation (LES) is developed. This numerical model can be used to simulate wave breaking and sediment suspension. The model consists of a free-surface model using the surface marker method combined with a two-dimensional model that solves the flow equations. The turbulence and the turbulent diffusion are described by a large-eddy-simulation (LES) method where the large turbulence features are simulated by solving the flow equations, and a subgrid model represents the small-scale turbulence that is not resolved by the flow model. A dynamic eddy viscosity subgrid scale stress model has been used for the present simulation. By applying this model to Stokes' wave breaking problem in the surf zone, we find that the model results agree very well with experimental data. By use of this model to simulation of the breaking process of a periodic wave, it can be found that the model can reproduce the complicated flow phenomena, especially the plunging breaker. It reflects the dynamic structures of roller or vortex in the plunging breaker, and when the wave breaks, many strong vortex structures will be produced in the inner surf zone where the concentration of suspended sediment can thereby become relatively high.
A hindcast simulation of 75 typhoons and winter monsoons which affected the coastal areas of Korean Peninsula is performed by use of a third generation ocean wave prediction model, WAM-cycle 4 model, loosely coupled with a com-bined tide and surge model. Typhoon wind fields are derived from the planetary marine boundary layer model for effective neutral winds embedding the vortical storm wind from the parameterized Rankin vortex type model in the limited areas of the overall modeled region. The hindcasted results illustrate that significant wave heights (SWH) considering the wave-tide-surge coupled process are significantly different from the results via the decoupled case especially in the region of the estuaries of the Changjiang Estuary, The Hangzhou Bay, and the southwestern tip of Korean Peninsula. This extensive model simulation is the first attempt to investigate the strong wave-tide-surge interaction for the shallow depth area along the coasts of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea Continental shelf.
The phase one project of the twin jetties at the Tao-er Estuary yields no effect on the flow, and there is a large area of deposition. A numerical model is employed to simulate the flow field, and the scouring and silting in the channel be-tween the two jetties are analyzed. The results show that the effective tidal flux between the two jetties is reduced due to the notch located at the heel of the east jetty, and the effect of contraction-flush is not obvious. As for the regulation of this kind of estuary under the tide action, the capability of tidal flux should be fully used.
A hybrid numerical method for the hydraulic modeling of a curtain-walled dissipater of reflected waves from breakwa-ters is presented. In this method, a zonal approach that combines a nonlinear weakly dispersive wave (Boussinesq-type equation) method and a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method is used. The Boussinesq-type equation is solved in the far field to describe wave transformation in shallow water. The RANS method is used in the near field to re-solve the turbulent boundary layer and vortex flows around the structure. Suitable matching conditions are enforced at the interface between the viscous and the Boussinesq region. The Coupled RANS and Boussinesq method successfully resolves the vortex characteristics of flow in the vicinity of the structure, while unexpected phenomena like wave re-reflection are effectively controlled by lengthening the Boussinesq region. Extensive results on hydraulic performance of a curtain-walled dissipater and the mechanism of dissipation of reflected waves are presented, providing a reference for minimization of the breadth of the water chamber and for determination of the submerged depth of the curtain wall.
In this paper, the motions are studied of a multi-body which is composed of two plates hinged together and moored by eight mooring lines in regular waves. The experimental results are compared with computational results. The linear po-tential theory and the perturbation method are combined to study this complicated system. The former is used to calculate the wave forces acting on the plates and the motion responses of them, while the latter is used to describe the dynamic character of the eight mooring lines coupled with the two hinged plates. Some response results of each plate are presented and comparisons between calculated results and experimental data are given. All the calculations are confined to regular beam waves.
ScholarOne Manuscripts Log In
- Volume 33
- Issue 6
- December 2019
- Superintended by:
CHINA ASSOCIATION FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
- Sponsored by:
Chinese Ocean Engineering Society （COES）
- Edited by:
Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute
Adaptive Predictive Inverse Control of Offshore Jacket Platform Based on Rough Neural Network
Numerical Simulation of Water Exchange Characteristics of the Jiaozhou Bay Based on A Three-Dimensional Lagrangian Model
A Global Reliability Assessment Method on Aging Offshore Platforms with Corrosion and Cracks