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The time evolution of a two-dimensional line thermal-a turbulent flow produced by an initial element with signifi-cant buoyancy released in a large water body, is numerically studied with the two-equation k - e model for turbulence closure. The numerical results show that the thermal is characterized by a vortex pair flow and a kidney shaped concentra-tion structure with double peak maxima; the computed flow details and scalar mixing characteristics can be described by self-similar relations beyond a dimensionless time around 10. There are two regions in the flow field of a line thermal: a mixing region where the concentration of tracer fluid is high and the flow is turbulent and rotational with a pair of vortex eyes, and an ambient region where the concentration is zero and the flow is potential and well-described by a model of doublet with strength very close to those given by early experimental and analytical studies. The added virtual mass coeffi-cient of the thermal motion is found to be approximately 1. The aspect ratio for the kidney-shaped sectional thermal is found to be around l .45 for the self-similar phase. The predicted thermal spreading and mixing rate compares well with experimental data.
A numerical model is developed for estimation of local scour around a large circular cylinder under vvave action. The model includes wave diffraction around structures, bed shear stress calculation inside the vvave boundary layer and topo-graphical change model. The vvave model is based on the improved Boussinesq equations for varying depth. The vvave boundary layer is calculaled by solving the integrated momentum equation over the boundary layer. The bed shear stress due to streaming, an important factor affecting the sediment transport around a large-scale cylinder, is calculated. The Lagrangian drift velocity is included in calculation of the suspended sediment transport rates. The model is implemented by a finite element method and the results from the present model, which agree well with experimental data, are com-pared vvith those from other methods.
Based on the motion differential equations of vibration and acoustic coupling system for thin elastic shells with ribs, by means of the Fourier integral transformation and the Fourier inverse transformation, as well as the stationary phase method, an analytic solution, which has satisfying computational effectiveness and precision, is derived for the solution to the vibration and acouslic radiation from a submerged stiffened infinite circular cylinder with both ring and axial ribs. It is easy to analyze the effect of stiffening supports in the acoustic radiation field by use of the formulas obtained by the pre-sented method and corresponding numerical computation. It is shown that the axial-stiffeners can improve the mechanical and acoustical characteristics. Moreover, the present method can be used to study the acoustic radiation mechanism of the type of structure.
Some new results of the modeling of mean free surface of waves or wave set-up are presented. The stream funetion wave theory is applied to incident short waves. The limiting wave steepness is adopted as the wave breaker indcx in the calculation of wave breaking dissipation. The model is based on Roelvink (1993), but the numerical techniques used in the solution are based on the Weighted-Average Flux (WAF) method (Watson et al. , 1992), with Time-Operator-Split-ting (TOS) used for the treatment of the source terms. This method allows a small number of eomputational points to be used, and is particularly efficient in modeling wave set-up. The short wave (or incident primary wave) energy equation is solved by use of a traditional Lax-Wendroff technique. The present model is found to be satisfactory compared with the measurements conducted by Stive (1983).
Seismic load has a significant effect on the response of a free spanning submarine pipeline when the pipeline is con-structed in a seismically active region. The model experiment is performed on an underwater shaking tahle to simulate the response of submarine pipelines under dynamic input. In consideration of the effects of the terrestrial and submarine pipeline , water depth, support condition, distance from seabed, empty and full pipeline, and span on dynamic response, 120 groups of experiments are conducted. Affecting factors are analyzed and conclusions are drawn for reference. For the con-trol of dynamic response, the span of a submarine pipeline is by far more important than the other factors. Meanwhile, the rosponse difference between a submarine pipeline under sine excitation and that under random excitation exists in ex-periments.
Based on the mild slope equation that has heen deeomposed inlo three equations related to wave phase function, wave amplitude and wave approach angle, a refraction-diffraction model is developed. The finite difference method has been selected as the solution method. The model results are compared with experimental results and the model is applied to coastal waters of the Fethiye Bay, whieh is located at the Mediterranean Sea of Turkey.
The mass transport in a thin layer of non-Newtonian bed mud under surface waves is examined with a two-fluid Stokes boundary layer model. The mud is assumed to be a bi-viscous fluid, which tends to resist motion for small-applied stresses, but flows readily when the yield stress is exceeded. Asymptotic expansions suitable for shallow lluid layers are applied, and the second-order solutions for the mass transport induced by surface progressive waves are obtained numeri-cally. It is found that the stronger the non-Newtonian behavior of the mud, the more pronounced intermittency of the flow. Consequently, the mass transport velocity is diminished in magnitude, and can even become negative (i. e. , oppo-site to wave propagation) for a certain range of yield stress.
This study presents a three-point method for separating incident and reflected waves to explain normally incident waves' propagating over a sloping bed. Linear wave shoaling is used to determine changes in wave amplitude and phase in response to variations of bathymetry. The wave reflection coefficient and incident amplitude are estimated from wave heights measured at three fixed wave gauges with unequal spacing. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the proposed method can predict the reflection and amplitude of waves over a sloping bed more accurately than the two-point method.
The effect of the cone spacing of a conieal structure on the ice force is studied by model experiments. The ice force reduction coefficient presented in this paper expresses the relationship between the ice force and the arrangement of cones. The experiments prove that the mode of the ice failure before the boundary of upward-downward bending cone (UDBC) is crushing. A conclusion can also be drawn from the experiments that the ice force on the boundary of UDBC is by far less than that on a vertical pile with the same diameter. Moreover, the ice force frequencies on upright and inve-rted cones are obtained under the field condition of the platform JZ20-2, respectively. The results show that the alterna-tion of the ice force on UDBC can hardly induce resonance of platform JZ20-2.
A template offshore platform, located in the Bohai Bay of China, has exhibited excessive, unexpected vibration un-der mildly hostile sea conditions, which has affected the normal operation of the platform. Since the structure was de-signed to sustain more severe wave climate, the cause of the excessive vibration has been suspected to originate from other sources. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the causes of the excessive vibration, and to explore possible remedies to solve the problem, In this paper, the vibration behavior of the offshore platform is analyzed by means of finite element (FE) modeling, field measurements and laboratory test. Results of analysis suggest that relative movement and impact between the piles and the jacket legs exist, i. e. the piles and the jacket are not perfectly connected. The discon-nection of the piles and jacket weakens the overall stiffness of the platform, and therefore produces unexpected excessive vibration. In this study, measures for reducing the excessive vibration are proposed to control the response of the platform.
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- Volume 33
- Issue 6
- December 2019
- Superintended by:
CHINA ASSOCIATION FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
- Sponsored by:
Chinese Ocean Engineering Society （COES）
- Edited by:
Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute
Adaptive Predictive Inverse Control of Offshore Jacket Platform Based on Rough Neural Network
Numerical Simulation of Water Exchange Characteristics of the Jiaozhou Bay Based on A Three-Dimensional Lagrangian Model
A Global Reliability Assessment Method on Aging Offshore Platforms with Corrosion and Cracks