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The history and current status of research and development of wave energy in the world is briefly introduced. The main problems existing in these studies are pointed out. The description is focused on the current status and the advancements achieved in China. After analysis of the wave energy resources and practical situations in China, it is pointed out that the studies on wave energy should be not only concentrated on the conversion efficiency and costs of wave energy devices, but also focused on the technology of independent operation and stable output of electricity. Finally, the perspectives of application of wave energy in China are discussed.
Costs and losses induced by possible future extreme environmental conditions and difficulties in repairing post yielding damage strongly suggest the need for proper consideration in design rather than just life loss prevention. This can be addressed through the development of design methodology that balances the initial cost of the very large floating structure (VLFS) against the expected potential losses resulting from future extreme wave induced structural damage. Here, the development of a methodology for determining optimal, cost effective design will be presented and applied to a VLFS located in the Tokyo bay. Optimal design criteria are determined based on the total expected life cycle cost and acceptable damage probability and curvature of the structure, and a set of sizes of the structure are obtained. The methodology and applications require expressions of the initial cost and the expected life cycle damage cost as functions of the optimal design variables. This study includes the methodology, total life cycle cost function, structural damage modeling, and reliability analysis.
When an oil tanker under the combined action of wind, waves and tidal current and is berthed or moored to a platform, the impact forces on the fenders and the tensile force in the mooring lines are important factors in the studies of berthing and mooring conditions. Based on the experiment of a berthing and mooring tanker model under the action of wind, wave and tidal current in the same direction, this paper studies the allowable berthing and mooring conditions by considering the tensile forces of mooring lines and impact forces on the fenders, as well as the impact energy on the fenders. And a method has been proposed here for motion amplitude analysis. A successful method to decrease impact forces on the fenders is put forward. Blowing in wind and blowing off wind and different angles between waves and the fenders are considered in the experimental study. In the berthing tests of the tanker model, the impact forces are measured and the impact energy is calculated, then the berthing conditions are determined. In the mooring tests of the tanker model, the mooring line tensile forces and impact forces are measured, and the allowable mooring conditions are given that will be useful to engineering design.
In this paper, the fact is revealed that the surface elevation of the third order Stokes waves in implicit form could have no solution or have simultaneously a trivial one and a singular one on certain conditions. Based on this fact, the relative breaking width, a more reasonable quantity in agreement with the definition of whitecapping coverage rate, is obtained directly from the assumption that no solution means breaking. The implications of the singular solution existing in the third order stokes waves are also discussed briefly.
Satellite remote sensing technique offers a wide range of information, and is one of the tools for ocean wave observation. This paper discusses the limitations of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images in wave field analysis. It is found that the wave field analysis is affected by the gray value distribution of image and the relationship between satellite travel and wave propagation directions. Since human activities and coastal engineering are performed in nearshore areas, some issues are discussed for nearshore SAR image analysis. Several case studies show that the wave parameters estimated from nearshore SAR images are quite different from in situ measurements, suggesting that the wave information derived from nearshore SAR images cannot appropriately represent the wave characteristics. One of the reasons is that the wave field is non homogeneous in the nearshore area.
The seabed oil gas pipeline network is simplified to a network with stochastic edge weight by means of the fuzzy graphics theory. With the help of network analysis, fuzzy mathematics, and stochastic theory, the problem of reliability analysis for the seabed oil gas pipeline network under earthquakes is transformed into the calculation of the transitive closure of fuzzy matrix of the stochastic fuzzy network. In classical network reliability analysis, the node is supposed to be non invalidated; in this paper, this premise is modified by introducing a disposal method which has taken the possible invalidated node into account. A good result is obtained by use of the Monte Carlo simulation analysis.
Extensive data of undrained shear strength for various remolded soils are compiled to normalize the remolded undrained strength. Remolded soils have a wide spectrum of liquid limits ranging from 25% to 412%. It is found that the remolded undrained strength is a function of water content and liquid limit. Furthermore, a simple index designated as normalized water content w * is introduced for normalizing remolded undrained strength for various soils. The normalized water content w * is the ratio of water content to liquid limit. The relationship between the remolded undrained strength and the normalized water content can be expressed by a simple equation. The new simple equation is not only valuable theoretically for helping in assessing the in situ mechanical behavior, but also useful to ocean engineering practice.
This paper presents a refined method for estimating the annual extreme wave heights at a coastal or offshore project site on the basis of the data acquired at some nearby routine hydrographic stations. This method is based on the orthogonality principle in linear mean square estimation of stochastic processes. The error of the method is analyzed and compared with that of the conventional method. It is found that the method is able to effectively reduce the error so long as some feasible measures are adopted. A simulated test of the method has been conducted in a large scale wind wave flume. The test results are in good agreement with those given by theoretical error analysis. A scheme to implement the method is proposed on the basis of error analysis. The scheme is so designed as to reduce the estimation error as far as possible. This method is also suitable to utilizing satellite wave data for the estimation.
The deformation of sea coast or sandy deposits caused by earthquakes can lead to catastrophic damages to various port structures. The volumetric deformation is mainly induced by densification of sand during the dissipation of excess pore water pressure created by cyclic loading. Based on laboratory test, the reconsolidation volumetric characteristics of saturated sea sand are investigated. The experiments are conducted with a newly developed multi functional triaxial test equipment. Two types of dynamic loads are applied to the samples to clarify different kinds of affecting factors. It is found that the reconsolidation volumetric strain is correlated not only to the excess pore water pressure and the maximum shear strain during the dynamic loading, but also to the effective confining pressure. A new formula is put forward to calculate the volumetric strain during reconssolidation.
The breakwater with top sealed, shallow and wide penetrating box foundations is a new type of structure, applicable to deep water and soft seabed. The relations of horizontal and vertical bearing capacities of the box foundation structure as well as the instability induced failure modes to its dimensions and external loads are discussed through static model tests and wave tests. The mechanical properties of the stability of the box foundation are similar to those of embedded rigid foundations, i.e. the vertical stresses at the bottom of the box are distributed in a linear pattern under the action of vertical loads, and passive and active soil pressures are developed at the front and back sides of the box under the action of horizontal loads; there are two instability induced failure modes of the foundation structure-horizontal slide along the box base and tilting due to insufficient local vertical bearing capacity of the soil beneath the box base. The stability of box foundations can be analyzed by use of the methods applied to analysis of the embedded rigid foundations. To increase the width of the box is the most effective way to improve the stability of box foundations.
This paper develops a fuzzy pattern recognition model for group decision making to solve the problem of lectotype optimization of offshore platforms. The lack of data and the inexact or incomplete information for criteria are the main cause of uncertainty in the evaluation process, therefore it is necessary to integrate the judgments from different decision makers with different experience, knowledge and preference. This paper first uses a complementary principle based pairwise comparison method to obtain the subjective weight of the criteria from each decision maker. A fuzzy pattern recognition model is then developed to integrate the judgments from all the decision makers and the information from the criteria, under the supervision of the subjective weights. Finally a case study is given to show the efficiency and robustness of the proposed model.
Well controlled model experiments were carried out to verify acoustic impedance inversion scheme, and different methods of extracting impulse responses were investigated by practical data. The acoustic impedance profiles reconstructed from impulse responses are in good agreement with the measured value and theoretical value.
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- Volume 33
- Issue 6
- December 2019
- Superintended by:
CHINA ASSOCIATION FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
- Sponsored by:
Chinese Ocean Engineering Society （COES）
- Edited by:
Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute
Adaptive Predictive Inverse Control of Offshore Jacket Platform Based on Rough Neural Network
Numerical Simulation of Water Exchange Characteristics of the Jiaozhou Bay Based on A Three-Dimensional Lagrangian Model
A Global Reliability Assessment Method on Aging Offshore Platforms with Corrosion and Cracks