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This study has focused on developing numerical procedures for the dynamic nonlinear analysis of cable structures subjected to wave forces and ground motions in the ocean. A geometrically nonlinear finite element procedure using the isoparametric curved cable element based on the Lagrangian formulation is briefly summarized. A simple and accurate method to determine the initial equilibrium state of cable systems associated with self-weights, buoyancy and the motion of end points is presented using the load incremental method combined with penalty method. Also the Newmark method is used for dynamic nonlinear analysis of ocean cables. Numerical examples are presented to validate the present numerical method.
Five generalized physical models of different distortion ratios were built according to DOU Guo-ren's similarity theory of total sediment transport modeling for estuarine and coastal regions. Experiments on local scour in front of groins were made under the actions of tidal currents and waves with clear and sediment entraining water. The scour depths under different dynamic actions are compared. The effect of the distortion ratio on the depth of scour hole is discussed. A relationship between scour depths for distorted and undistorted models is given.
Local scour around a bridge pier is an important parameter for the design of a bridge. Compared with the local scour in a mono-directional current, the local scour in a tidal current has its unique characteristics. In this paper, several aspects of local scour around bridge piers in tidal current, including the scour development process, the plane form of a scour hole and the maximum scour depth, are studied through movable bed flume experiments.
A numerical model is developed for dynamic analysis of large-cylinder breakwaters embedded in soft soil. In the model, the large cylinder is taken as a rigid body divided into elements and the soft soil is replaced by discrete 3D nonlinear spring-dashpot systems. The numerical model is used to simulate the dynamic response of a large-cylinder breakwater to breaking wave excitation. The effects of the dynamic stress-strain relationship models of the soil, the radius and embedded depth of the cylinder, the nonlinear behaviors of the soil, and the limit strength condition of the soil on the dynamic responses of the large-cylinder structure are investigated with an example given. It is indicated that the above-mentioned factors have significant effects on the dynamic responses of an embedded large cylinder breakwater under breaking wave excitation.
Based on a series of cyclic triaxial tests, the effect of cyclic frequency on the undrained behaviors of undisturbed marine clay is investigated. For a given dynamic stress ratio, the accumulated pore water pressure and dynamic strain increase with the number of cycles. There exists a threshold value for both the accumulated pore water pressure and dynamic strain, below which the effect of cyclic frequency is very small, but above which the accumulated pore water pressure and dynamic strain increase intensely with the decrease of cyclic frequency for a given number of cycles. The dynamic strength increases with the increase of cyclic frequency, whereas the effect of cyclic frequency on it gradually diminishes to zero when the number of cycles is large enough, and the dynamic strengths at different frequencies tend to the same limiting minimum dynamic strength. The test results demonstrate that the reasons for the frequency effect on the undrained soil behaviors are both the creep effect induced by the loading rate and the decrease of sample effective confining pressure caused by the accumulated pore water pressure.
Wind input parameterizations proposed by Jeffreys, Sverdrup and Munk, and Plant are analyzed. It is found by analogy that the similarity of integrals of the three wind input parameterizations exists. Wave breaking dissipation parameterizations proposed by Tsikunov, Hasselmann, and Phillips are also analyzed. Likewise it is found by analogy that the similarity of integrals of the three dissipation parameterizations exists. The similarities of wind input and dissipation are applied to the investigation of the fetch-limited growth of wind waves, together with the 3/2 power law presented by Toba. Some semi-empirical formulas concerning the growth of wave height and period with fetch are presented. The results from the formulas are in good agreement with previous field observations.
A practical approach is discussed for sub-sea pipeline monitoring and leak detection based on the real time transient model . The characteristic method of transient simulation is coupled with the Extended Kalman Filter to estimate the system state where the only observed data are inlet and outlet flow rate and pressure. Because EKF has a time variant track under the non-stationary stochastic process with additive Gaussian noise, the high sensitivity of RTTM to non-stationary operating condition is reduced. A leak location recursion estimation formula is presented based on the real time observed data. The results of 27 groups of test data indicate that the procedure presented is sensitive to a wide range of detectable leak sizes and has a low average relative error of leak location .
In this paper experimental wind wave data are analyzed. It is found that differences in spectral width will give rise to differences in wave height distribution. The effect of spectral width on the distribution is mainly in the high wave range. The effect of wave steepness is in low, medium and high wave ranges. In the high wave range the effect of spectral width is comparable to that of wave steepness. Differences in spectral width in the observations may give rise to discrepancies in the result when wave steepness is the only parameter in the distribution.
As water depth increases, the structural safety and reliability of a system become more and more important and challenging. Therefore, the structural reliability method must be applied in ocean engineering design such as offshore platform design. If the performance function is known in structural reliability analysis, the first-order second-moment method is often used. If the performance function could not be definitely expressed, the response surface method is always used because it has a very clear train of thought and simple programming. However, the traditional response surface method fits the response surface of quadratic polynomials where the problem of accuracy could not be solved, because the true limit state surface can be fitted well only in the area near the checking point. In this paper, an intelligent computing method based on the whole response surface is proposed, which can be used for the situation where the performance function could not be definitely expressed in structural reliability analysis. In this method, a response surface of the fuzzy neural network for the whole area should be constructed first, and then the structural reliability can be calculated by the genetic algorithm. In the proposed method, all the sample points for the training network come from the whole area, so the true limit state surface in the whole area can be fitted. Through calculational examples and comparative analysis, it can be known that the proposed method is much better than the traditional response surface method of quadratic polynomials, because, the amount of calculation of finite element analysis is largely reduced, the accuracy of calculation is improved, and the true limit state surface can be fitted very well in the whole area. So, the method proposed in this paper is suitable for engineering application.
The modeling of generation and subsequent propagation of irregular waves in a numerical wave flume is performed by mean of the boundary element method. Random waves are generated by a piston-type wave generator at one end of the flume with the Mitsuyasu-Bretschneider spectrum used as the target spectrum for the generation. An artificial absorbing beach is placed at the other end of the flume to minimize wave reflection. Surface fluctuations are described by use of the Lagrangian description, and finite difference is adopted for the approximation of time derivative. To monitor the developments of the waves, a number of pseudo wave gauges are installed along the tank. Through comparison of the spectra from those gauges with the target spectrum, satisfactory results can be obtained from the present numerical scheme.
The optimal control is investigated for linear systems affected by external harmonic disturbance and applied to vibration control systems of offshore steel jacket platforms. The wave-induced force is the dominant load that offshore structures are subjected to, and it can be taken as harmonic excitation for the system. The linearized Morison equation is employed to estimate the wave loading. The main result concerns the existence and design of a realizable optimal regulator, which is proposed to damp the forced oscillation in an optimal fashion. For demonstration of the effectiveness of the control scheme, the platform performance is investigated for different wave states. The simulations are based on the tuned mass damper and the active mass damper control devices. It is demonstrated that the control scheme is useful in reducing the displacement response of jacket-type offshore platforms.
The effect of the asymmetric water entry over a submerged part of a ship on the hydrodynamic impact is investigated numerically. A wedge body is considered and the problem is assumed to be two-dimensional. The results of symmetric and asymmetric impacts are compared. The effect is found significant in the numerical simulation. The maximum hydrodynamic pressure at a heel angle of 10 degrees becomes about 95% more than that of the symmetric entry. The result of the present work proves the importance of asymmetrical hydrodynamic impact loading for structural design of a ship. Besides, the numerical procedure is not limited to a wedge type cross section and it is possible to apply it for any real geometry of ships and high-speed craft.
A vertical 2-D numerical model is presented for simulating the interaction between water waves and a soft mud bed. Taking into account nonlinear rheology, a semi-empirical rheological model is applied to this water-mud model, reflecting the combined visco-elasto-plastic properties of soft mud under such oscillatory external forces as water waves. In order to increase the resolution of the flow in the neighborhood of both sides of the inter-surface, a logarithmic grid in the vertical direction is employed for numerical treatment. Model verifications are given through comparisons between the calculated and the measured mud mass transport velocities as well as wave height changes.
ScholarOne Manuscripts Log In
- Volume 33
- Issue 6
- December 2019
- Superintended by:
CHINA ASSOCIATION FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
- Sponsored by:
Chinese Ocean Engineering Society （COES）
- Edited by:
Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute
Adaptive Predictive Inverse Control of Offshore Jacket Platform Based on Rough Neural Network
Numerical Simulation of Water Exchange Characteristics of the Jiaozhou Bay Based on A Three-Dimensional Lagrangian Model
A Global Reliability Assessment Method on Aging Offshore Platforms with Corrosion and Cracks