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A new approach to high-order Boussinesq-type equations with ambient currents is presented. The current velocity is assumed to be uniform over depth and of the same magnitude as the shallow water wave celerity. The wave velocity field is expressed in terms of the horizontal and vertical wave velocity components at an arbitrary water depth level. Linear operators are introduced to improve the accuracy of the kinematic condition at the sea bottom. The dynamic and kinematic conditions at the free surface are expressed in terms of wave velocity variables defined directly on the free surface. The new equations provide high accuracy of linear properties as well as nonlinear properties from shallow to deep water, and extend the applicable range of relative water depth in the case of opposing currents.
Owing to the complexity of the pipe-in-pipe (PIP) riser system in structure, load and restraint, many problems arise in the structural analysis of the system. This paper presents a new method for nonlinear static finite element stress analysis of the PIP riser system. The finite element (FE) model of the PIP riser system is built via software AutoPIPE 6.1. According to the specialties of a variety of components in the PIP riser system, different elements are used so as to model the system accurately. Allowing for the complication in modeling the effects of seabed restraint, a technique based on the bilinear spring concept is developed to calculate the soil properties. Then, based on a pipeline project, the entire procedure of stress analysis is discussed in detail, including creation of an FE model, processing of input data and analysis of results. A wide range of loading schemes is investigated to ascertain that the stresses remain within the acceptable range of the pipe material strength. Finally, the effects of the location of flanges, the thermal expansion of submarine pipelines and the seabed restraint on stress distribution in the riser and expansion loop are studied, which are valuable for pipeline designers.
Coastal structures may be built on natural sedimentary intermediate grounds, which mainly consist of silty soils and fine sandy soils. In this study, extensive field and laboratory tests were performed on the natural marine intermediate deposits to demonstrate the difference in behavior between natural marine clayey soils and natural marine intermediate deposits. The natural intermediate deposits have almost the same ratios of natural water content to liquid limit as those of the soft natural marine clays, but the former have much higher in-situ strength and sensitivity than the latter. The research results indicate that grain size distributions of soils affect significantly tip resistance obtained in field cone penetration tests. The mechanical parameters of natural marine intermediate deposits are also significantly affected by sample disturbance due to their high sensitivity and relatively large permeability. Unconfined compression shear tests largely underestimate the strength of natural marine intermediate soils. The triaxial consolidated compression shear tests with simulated in-situ confined pressure give results much better than those of uncomfined compression shear tests.
At present, most researches on the vortex-induced vibration of submarine free spanning pipelines ignore the effect of internal flowing fluid; furthermore, there are no research reports considering the coupling effect of internal and external fluid with the free span. In this paper, combining Iwan's wake oscillator model with the differential equation derived for the dynamic response of submarine free spanning pipelines with inclusion of internal flow, the pipe-fluid coupling equations are developed to investigate the effect of internal flow on the vortex-induced vibration of the free spans. The finite element approximation is implemented to derive the matrix equations of equilibrium. The Newmark method combined with simple iteration is used to solve the system of equations. The results indicate that the internal fluid flow may cause the shift of resonance band to the lower frequency and a slight decrease in the peak value; the effect will be more pronounced with the increase of the span length and can be weakened in the presence of the axial tension.
A time-dependent finite element method (FEM) is developed to analyze the transient hydroelastic responses of very large floating structures (VLFS) subjected to dynamic loads. The hydrodynamic problem is formulated based on the linear theory of fluid and the structural response is analyzed based on the thin plate theory. The FEM truncates the unbounded fluid domain by introducing an artificial boundary surface, thus defining a finite computational domain. At this boundary surface an impedance boundary conditions are applied so that no wave reflections occur. In the proposed scheme, all of the procedures are processed directly in time domain, which is efficient for nonlinear analyses of structure floating on unbounded fluid. Numerical results indicate acceptable accuracy of the proposed method.
A pressure tight sediment sampling technology, which can be introduced into the modification of the piston corer to accommodate the investigation of gas hydrate, is put forward. In this paper, the three basic rules of the technology are analyzed in detail: specimen transferring rule, seal self-tightening rule and semi-active pressure holding rule. Based on these, the structure of the pressure tight piston corer is put forward and its working principle is analyzed. Finally, a pressure tight sediment sampler, to which the same technology is applied, is researched through experiments. Results show that the sampler based on the above-mentioned theory has a good ability in sampling and in -situ pressure holding.
Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the mixture of wastewater discharged from a submerged multiport diffuser in the Nantong sea-area. The process was then simulated with a three-dimensional numerical model. The plane or line patch was used to impose the discharge momentum flux in the near field. A comparison of model simulation with laboratory experiments shows that the proposed model can be used to simulate the shapes of pollution plumes, the distributions of excess concentration, and the velocity induced by a coflowing diffuser in proximity to a shoreline boundary. From the numerical simulation and laboratory experiments, it is recommended that the multiport diffuser be placed in a hydrodynamically active sea-area.
There is a great demand for in-situ real-time chemical sensors in the oceanographic research, to measure the chemical components under the deep sea. The ISE (Ion Selective Electrode) is commonly used as a detecting part of deep-sea electro-chemical sensors. The paper highlights the solidification and micromation of the working and reference electrodes. The sensors of pH and H 2S with a thermal probe are accomplished after the solution of configuration of electrodes and signal processing. The sensor system has been tested successfully in the cruise of DY105-12, 14 sponsored by China Ocean Mineral Research and Exploitation Association(COMRA).
This paper presents analytic solutions for the flow field of inviscid fluid induced by uniformly and rigidly moving multiple helical vortex filaments in a cylindrical pipe. The relative coordinate system is set on the moving vortex filaments. The analytical solutions of the flow field are obtained on the assumption that the relative velocity field induced is time-independent and helically symmetrical. If the radius of the cylindrical pipe approaches infinity, these solutions are also available for unbounded space. The results show that both the absolute velocity field and pressure field are periodical in time, and may reduce to time-independent when the helical vortex filaments are immobile or slip along the filaments themselves. Furthermore, the solution of velocity field is reduced to Okulov's formula for the case of a single static vortex filament in a cylindrical pipe. The calculated locations of pressure peak and valley on the pipe wall agree with experimental results.
An experimental scheme for the generation of directional focusing waves in a wave basin is established in this paper. The effects of the directional range, frequency width and center frequency on the wave focusing are studied. The distribution of maximum amplitude and the evolution of time series and spectra during wave packet propagation and the variation of water surface parameters are extensively investigated. The results reveal that the characteristics of focusing waves are significantly influenced by wave directionality and that the breaking criteria for directional waves are distinctly different from those for unidirectional waves.
Measurements of wave heights with image sequences from a Charged Coupled Device(CCD) camera were made. Sinusoidal, as well as unidirectional and directional, waves were used for the experiments. A transfer function was obtained by calibration of the magnitudes of the gray values of the images against the results of wave gauge measurements for directional waves. With this transfer function, wave heights for regular waves were deduced. It is shown that the average relative errors are smaller than 16% for both unidirectional and directional waves.
The nonlinear dispersion relations and modified relations proposed by Kirby and Hedges have the limitation of intermediate minimum value. To overcome the shortcoming, a new nonlinear dispersion relation is proposed. Based on the summarization and comparison of existing nonlinear dispersion relations, it can be found that the new nonlinear dispersion relation not only keeps the advantages of other nonlinear dispersion relations, but also significantly reduces the relative errors of the nonlinear dispersion relations for a range of the relative water depth of 1
The ice force is an important factor to be taken into account for offshore structures in cold regions, and the calculation method of the ice force is meaningful for the offshore structure design. The cone is now used as an optimal ice-resistant structure because it can cause bending failure of the ice sheet. The interaction between an ice sheet and a conical structure is studied in this paper and Croasdale's model is modified based on field observations. The newly built model separates the ice sheet into the emersed part and the floating part, and the equilibrium analyses are carried out respectively. The bending moment distribution of the ice sheet is analyzed for the determination of the position of bending failure, which serves as a supplementary restraint. The analytic solution of the ice force on a conical structure is obtained and it is verified with the experimental data of previous researches.
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- Volume 33
- Issue 6
- December 2019
- Superintended by:
CHINA ASSOCIATION FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
- Sponsored by:
Chinese Ocean Engineering Society （COES）
- Edited by:
Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute
Adaptive Predictive Inverse Control of Offshore Jacket Platform Based on Rough Neural Network
Numerical Simulation of Water Exchange Characteristics of the Jiaozhou Bay Based on A Three-Dimensional Lagrangian Model
A Global Reliability Assessment Method on Aging Offshore Platforms with Corrosion and Cracks