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Based on the maximum entropy principle a new probability density function (PDF) f(x) for the surface elevation of nonlinear sea waves, X, is derived through performing a coordinate transform of X and solving a variation problem subject to three constraint conditions of f(x). Compared with the maximum entropy PDFs presented previously, the new PDF has the following merits: (1) it has four parameters to be determined and hence can give more refined fit to observed data and has wider suitability for nonlinear waves in different conditions; (2) these parameters are expressed in terms of distribution moments of X in a relatively simple form and hence are easy to be determined from observed data; (3) the PDF is free of the restriction of weak nonlinearity and possible to be used for sea waves in complicated conditions, such as those in shallow waters with complicated topography; and (4) the PDF is simple in form and hence convenient for theoretical and practical uses. Laboratory wind-wave experiments have been conducted to test the competence of the new PDF for the surface elevation of nonlinear waves. The experimental results manifest that the new PDF gives somewhat better fit to the laboratory wind-wave data than the well-known Gram-Charlier PDF and beta PDF.
The results of a study on the key technology of using shell sand, a kind of sea sand, as backfill for sea reclamation are described briefly. Iaboratory tests show that the physical and mechanical properties of shell sand are as good as normal quartz sand. Based on the chemical test and durability test of shell sand it could be concluded that the influence of corrosion of shell sand by acid rain and sea water might be ignored in the evaluation of the safety and durability of the engineering project. The results of field improvement tests show that the bearing capacity of shell sand backfill foundation is more than 200 kPa after vibmflotation improvement or dynamic compaction improvement. The shell sand is a good backfill material for sea reclamation.
Typhoon-generated waves are simulated with two numerical wave models, the SWAN model for the coastal and Yangtze Estuary domain, nested within the WAVEWATCHIII (WW3) for the basin-scale East China Sea domain. Typhoon No. 8114 is chosen because it was very strong, and generated high waves in the Estuary. WW3 was implemented for the East China Sea coarse-resolution computational domain, to simulate the waves over a large spatial scale and provide boundary conditions for SWAN model simulations, implemented on a fine-resolution nested domain for the Yangtze Estuary area. The Takahashi wind model is applied to the simulation of the East China Sea scale (3-hourly) and Yangtze Estuary scale (1-hourly) winds. Simulations of significant wave heights in the East China Sea show that the highest waves are on the right side of the storm track, and maxima tend to occur at the eastern deep-water open boundary of the Yangtze Estuary. In the Yangtze Estuary, incoming swell is dominant over locally generated waves before the typhoon approaches the Estuary. As the typhoon approaches the Estuary, wind waves and swell coexist, and the wave direction is mainly influenced by the swell direction and the complex topography.
The maximum internal tangential stress is a critical parameter for the design of the PDC (polycrystalline diamond compact) die that has been widely applied to offshore oil drilling. A new simple equation for the calculation of the stress is developed, and verified by the test data from Kingdream Corp. of China, the largest bit Company in China. An optimum method for the design of the PDC die is presented and demonstrated in detail, and software for the design and FEM analysis of the die is developed on the basis of the method. This software has been used in oil industry in recent years.
Nowadays there are some chronic serious environmental problems, such as eutrophication, blue tide and so on, in a complicated coastal zone or a semi-enclosed bay, because the water exchanges between an inner bay and an outer sea is weak compared with the supply of contaminant. Under this situation, a method to improve the water quality by 3-dimensional small unsymmetrical structures has been proposed by Komatsu et al. In this paper, several numerical simulations of the tidal current and concentration for various arrangements of bottom roughness in a semi-enclosed model bay are carried out with a depth-averaged 2-D numerical model. The model is solved by the hybrid finite analytic method with non-staggered grid. And the SIMPLES algorithm with Rhie and Chow's momentum interpolation technique is used for the simulation. The effect of Komatsu's method for water purification is examined by numerical simulation. The result of numerical experiment indicates that it is possible to generate a new tidal residual current and to activate a tidal exchange by bottom roughness arrangement only.
A novel VOF-type volume-tracking method for two-dimensional free-surface flows based on the unstructured triangular mesh is presented. Owing to the inherent merit of the unstructured triangular mesh in fitting curved boundaries, this method can handle the free-surface problems with complex geometries accurately and directly, without introducing any complicated boundary treatment or artificial diffusion. The method solves the volume transport equation geometrically through the Modified Lagrangian-Eulerian Re-map (MLER) method, which is applied to advective fluid volumes. Moreover, the PLIC method is adopted to give a second-order reconstructed interface approximation. To validate this method, two advection tests were performed for the establishment of the accuracy and convergence rate of the solutions. Numerical results for these complex tests provide convincing evidence for the excellent solution quality and fidelity of the method.
In this paper, a robust path following control law is proposed for a deep-sea manned submersible maneuvering along a predeterminated path. Developed in China, the submersible is underactuated in the horizontal plane in that it is actuated by two perpendicular thrusts in this plane. The advanced non-singular terminal sliding mode (NTSM) is implemented for the design of the path following controller, which can ensure the convergence of the motion system in finite time and improve its robustness against parametric uncertainties and environmental disturbances. In the process of controller design, the close-loop stability is considered and proved by Lyapunov's stability theory. With the experimental data, numerical simulations are provided to verify the control law for path following of the deep-sea manned submersible.
The wavelet packet transform is used for the damage detection of offshore platforms. When some damage occurs, the dynamic response parameters of the structure will shift subtly. However, in some cases, the dynamic parameters, such as dynamic response, are not sensitive, and it is very difficult to predict the existence of damage. The present paper aims to describe how to find small damage by the use of wavelet packet transform. As the wavelet packet transform can be used to quickly find the singularity of the response signal on different scales, the acceleration signal of a damaged offshore platform in the time domain is transformed through the wavelet packet. Experimental results show that the Daubechies 4 wavelet transform can be used to detect damage.
During the construction of the guiding dike in the Yangtze Estuary, some of the caisson structures sank into the soil for 1 -5 m or slid about 20 m away from the original place when a strong storm attacked this area. Dynamic triaxial tests were carried out to simulate the behavior of foundation soils under wave loading. The test results show that the excessive settlement and lateral movement of the caissons are due to the weakening of the soft clay strength during the strong storm. The test results also show that the ability of the soft clay to resist the wave force will be greatly increased when the soft soil samples are suitably improved. Based on the test results, an improvement method combining vertical drains with surcharge loading was proposed to strengthen the foundation soil. On the improved soil foundation, the dike has been reconstructed and undergone several strong storms without any damage. A finite element approach has been developed for analyzing the settlement and stability of the dike under the action of strong storm.
In this study, the combined actions of waves and tidal currents in estuarine and coastal areas are considered and a 2D mathematical model for sediment transport by waves and tidal currents has been established in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates. Non-equilibrium transport equations of suspended load and bed load are used in the model. The concept of background concentration is introduced, and the formula of sediment transport capacity of tidal currents for the Oujiang River estuary is obtained. The Dou Guoren formula is employed for the sediment transport capacity of waves. Sediment transport capacity in the form of mud and the intensity of back silting are calculated by use of Luo Zaosen's formula. The calculated tidal stages are in good agreement with the field data, and the calculated velocities and flow directions of 46 vertical lines for 8 cross sections are also in good agreement with the measured data. On such a basis, simulations of back silting after excavation of the waterway with a sand bar under complicated boundary conditions in the navigation channel induced by suspended load, bed load and mud by waves and tidal currents are discussed.
The finite volume method (FVM) has many advantages in 2-D shallow water numerical simulation. In this study, the finite volume method is used with unstructured triangular grids to simulate the tidal currents. The Roe scheme is applied in the calculation of the intercell numerical flux, and the MUSCL method is introduced to improve its accuracy. The time integral is a two-step scheme of forecast and revision. For the verification of the present method, the Stoker's problem is calculated and the result is compared with the mathematically analytic solutions. The comparison indicates that the method is feasible. A sea area of a port is used as an example to test the method established here. The result shows that the present computational method is satisfactory, and it could be applied to the engineering fields.
China Ocean Engineering takes as its prime function the integration of new research concepts, equipment, technology, materials and structures and other scientific advances within the field of ocean engineering, with particular reference to developments in China. Tne Journal is concerned with all engineering aspects involved in the exploration and utilization of ocean resources, such as offshore engineering, coastal engineering, dive and salvage, utilization of marine energy, resourees and underwater engineering.
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- Volume 33
- Issue 6
- December 2019
- Superintended by:
CHINA ASSOCIATION FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
- Sponsored by:
Chinese Ocean Engineering Society （COES）
- Edited by:
Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute
Adaptive Predictive Inverse Control of Offshore Jacket Platform Based on Rough Neural Network
Numerical Simulation of Water Exchange Characteristics of the Jiaozhou Bay Based on A Three-Dimensional Lagrangian Model
A Global Reliability Assessment Method on Aging Offshore Platforms with Corrosion and Cracks