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Fundamental experiments were carried out in a wave flume on internal solitary wave (ISW) of depression-type propagating over a submerged ridge. The seabed ridge included either triangular or semicircular shape- regarded as topographic obstacles. Influenced by the submarine ridge, the transmitted waves were found to always consist of a leading pulse (a solitary wave) followed by a dispersive wave train. The wave profile propagating over a triangular ridge was similar to that caused by a semicircular obstacle. Apparently, the smooth face of a semicircular ridge produced time lag of wave propagation. From experimental results available, the reduction in wave energy induced by a semicircular ridge was larger than that by a triangular one. The events of wave distortion, strong breaking, internal bolus, and stratification mixing happened in case that the crest of an ISW was great enough to interact with the topographic obstacle. The reduction in wave energy was induced by strong breaking, and it depended on the ridge height rather than the geometric shape of the ridge.
The application of the vertical hoisting jack and wave motion compensation techniques to the salvage of an ancient sunken boat is introduced. The boat is wooden, loaded with cultural relics. It has been immersed at the bottom of the South China Sea for more than 800 years. In order to protect the structure of the boat and the cultural relics inside to the largest extent, an open caisson is used to hold the sunken boat and the silts around before they are raised from the seabed all together as a whole. In the paper, first, the seakeeping model test of the system of the salvage barge and the open caisson is done to determine some important wave response parameters. And then a further experimental study of the application of the vertical hoisting jack and wave motion compensation scheme to the salvage of the sunken boat is carried out. In the model tests, the techniques of the integrative mechanic-electronic-hydraulic control, wave motion forecast and wave motion compensation are used to minimize the heave motion of the open caisson. The results of the model tests show that the heave motion of the open caisson can be reduced effectively by the use of the present method.
Presented in this paper is a three-dimensional plastic limit analysis method of bearing capacity of the deeply-embedded large-diameter cylindrical structure in the cross-anisotropic soft ground. The most likely failure mechanism is assumed to be of a composite rupture surface which is composed of an individual wedge in the passive zone or two wedges in both active and passive zones near the mudline, depending on the separation or bonding state at the interface between the cylindrical structure and neighboring soils in the active wedge, and a truncated spherical slip surface at the base of the cylinder when the structure tends to overturn around a point located on the symmetry axis of the structure. The cylindrical structure and soil interaction system under consideration is also numerically analyzed by the finite element method by virtue of the general-purpose FEM software ABAQUS, in which the soil is assumed to obey tie Hill's criterion of yield. Both the failure mechanism assumed and the plastic limit analysis predictions are validated by numerical computations based on FEM. For the K_0-consolidated ground of clays typically with anisotropic undrained strength property, it is indicated through a parametric study that limit analysis without consideration of anisotropy of soil overestimates the lateral ultimate bearing capacity of a deeply-embedded cylindrical structure in soft ground in a certain condition.
Naturally deposited clay is usually characterized by strength anisotropy; however, the effect of anisotropy on the capacity of a suction caisson was seldom investigated. The conventional Hill yield surface includes undrained strengths in triaxial shear, simple shear and pressuremeter shear simultaneously but it can not specify differences in respect to the mode of loading for a given shearing mode. A new technique of updating strength is integrated into incremental finite element (FE) calculation to consider the mode of loading, which is applied to the study of variation of capacity with the aspect ratio of suction caissons in anisotropic clay. Compared with the upper bound limit analysis, FE simulation is capable of offering the lateral capacity of short caissons. In the normal range of anisotropic strength properties, the Mises yield surface with simple shear strength predicts the horizontal capacity of which the error is less than 10% for rough caissons and 15% for smooth caissons. It is also found that the friction of caisson affects the capacity significantly.
The development of deepwater oil fields has reached a new stage with the dramatic increase in water depth and the recent increasing demands of the economic development in the filed. The use of a Tension Leg Platform (TLP) combined with other systems, such as Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, Floating Production Unit (FPU) system, Tender Assisted Drilling (TAD) system, etc., has drawn the industry attention and increased significantly in the past few years. For the areas lacking of pipeline system, the use of TLP(s) combined with FPSO has been chosen to efficiently develop the deepwater fields. The TLP with a Tender Assisted Drilling system significantly reduces the payload of the platform and reduces the investment in the TLP system substantially. This opens the door for many new deepwater field developments to use the tension leg platform. The advantage of the TLP combined with a TAD system is more significant when several TLPs are used for the continuous development of the field. One of the applications for the TLP with a tender assisted drilling system can be in the development of an offshore marginal field. Owing to the increase of water depth, the conventional fixed platform model for the exploration of those fields becomes uneconomical. It also would be too expensive to use a large TLP structure for those marginal fields due to the large amount of initial investment. The TLP system with tender assisted drilling can be used to develop those fields economically. There are many marginal fields in China offshore, especially in shelf areas. The application of this field developing model, combined with the existing field developing experience in China, will open the door for many marginal field developments.This paper will review the application of the combined TLP system through some examples of completed/ongoing projects, and major technical issues encountered in those practices. The potential application of this technology in China deepwater development will be discussed in the end.
A depth-averaged 2-D numerical model for unsteady tidal flow in estuaries is established by use of the finite volume WENO scheme which maintains both uniform high order accuracy and an essentially non-oscillatory shock transition on unstructured triangular grid. The third order TVD Range-Kutta method is used for time discretization. The model has been firstly tested against four cases: 1) tidal forcing, 2) seiche oscillation, 3) wind setup in a closed bay, and 4) one-dimensional dam-break water flow. The results obtained in the present study compare well with those obtained from the corresponding analytic solutions idealized for the above four cases. The model is then applied to the simulation of tidal circulation in the Yangpu Bay, and detailed model calibration and verification have been conducted with measured tidal current in the spring tide, middle tide, and neap tide. The overall performance of the model is in qualitative agreement with the data observed in 2005, and it can be used to calculate the flow in estuaries and coastal waters.
Water exchange is an important hydrodynamic character of sea bays, and it is the basis for the study of the environmental capacity of sea bays. In this paper, a relation matrix is set up to describe the interaction among different areas of a sea bay, and to predict the water quality of those areas. The relation matrix is calculated based on the numerical results from a water quality model. This method is applied to the study of water exchange and the prediction of water quality of the Bohai Sea. The Bohai Sea is divided into five areas, and the effect of seasonal wind is taken into consideration. The results show a) the relation matrix can be used to study the water exchange among different areas and predict water quality of different areas at the respective characteristic time, b) the reduction of pollutant is dependent on both water exchange and initial distribution of the pollutant, and c) the half-life time of the pollutant is longer than the half-exchange time of the sea water.
A model for the calculation of velocity reduction behind a fishing net is proposed in this paper. Comparisons are made between the calculated results and experimental data. It is shown that by the application of the effective adjacent area coefficient of fluid flowing around a solid structure to the fishing net, the calculated results agree well with the experimental data. The model proposed in this paper can also be applied to the analysis of the velocity reduction within a fishing cage and can be introduced into the numerical simulation of the hydrodynamic behavior of fishing cages for the improvement of computational accuracy.
Many observed data show that the near-bed tidal velocity profile deviates from the usual logarithmic law. The amount of deviation may not be large, but it results in large errors when the logarithmic velocity profile is used to calculate the bed roughness height and friction velocity (or shear stress). Based on their investigation, Kuo et al. (1996) indicate that the deviation amplitude may exceed 100%. On the basis of fluid dynamic principle, the profile of the near-bed tidal velocity in estuarine and coastal waters is established by introducing Prandtl's mixing length theory and Von Karman self-similarity theory. By the fitting and calculation of the near-bed velocity profile data observed in the west Solent, England, the results are compared with those of the usual logarithmic model, and it is shown that the present near-bed tidal velocity profile model has such advantages as higher fitting precision, and better inner consistency between the roughness height and friction velocity. The calculated roughness height and friction velocity are closer to reality. The conclusions are validated that the logarithmic model underestimates the roughness height and friction velocity during tidal acceleration and overestimates them during tidal deceleration.
In this paper, the jacket platform is simulated by a non-uniform cantilever beam subjected to axial force. Based on the Hamilton theory, the equation of bending motion is developed and solved by the classical Ritz method combined with the pseudo-excitation method for random responses with non-classical damping. Usually, random responses of this continuous structure are obtained by orthogonality of modes, and some normal modes of the structure are needed, causing inconvenience for the analysis of the non-uniform beam whose normal modes are not easy to be obtained. However, if the pseudo-excitation method is extended to calculate random responses by combining it with the classical Ritz method, the responses of a non-uniform beam, such as auto-PSD function, cross-PSD and higher spectral moments, can be solved directly avoiding the calculation of normal modes. The numerical results show that the present method is effective and useful in aseismic design of platforms.
Considering both the axial force on the spanning pipeline and influence of sea waves and currents, a perpendicular nonlinear vibration equation which satisfies given boundary conditions is set up according to the factual soil supports for the pipeline. Based on the inherent modes of vibration determined from the equation of motion describing free vibrations, the differential equations for the time domain of the equation solution are deduced and established. By the application of time and frequency domain analysis, the sea wave and current force spectrum is derived from wave spectrum and is used as the input spectrum of the vibration equation to deduce the output spectrum, and further determine the probability distribution of displacement and strain. On this basis, the fatigue invalidation probability of the spanning pipeline is found out according to the theory of reliability. Finally, by means of calculation and analysis of a practical sample, the degree of effect of some important parameters on fatigue invalidation of the spanning pipeline span is determined.
A flexible connector of lifting pipes in a deep sea mining system is designed. The buttress thread (based on API standard) is used and foreign experience in connector design is referred to. With this kind of connector, the lifting pipe will only bear the axial force, free of moment. The strength of the connector is analyzed in detail, including the connecting strength of the buttress thread, the dynamic load of the pipe system, pressures inside and outside of the pipe, the lateral stress of the pipe wall and so on. Especially, a geometric model is built for 3-D contact stress analysis. The distribution graph of contact stress is presented. It is indicated that the strength of the spherical connector meets the demand.
ScholarOne Manuscripts Log In
- Volume 34
- Issue 3
- June 2020
- Superintended by:
CHINA ASSOCIATION FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
- Sponsored by:
Chinese Ocean Engineering Society （COES）
- Edited by:
Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute
Adaptive Predictive Inverse Control of Offshore Jacket Platform Based on Rough Neural Network
Numerical Simulation of Water Exchange Characteristics of the Jiaozhou Bay Based on A Three-Dimensional Lagrangian Model
A Global Reliability Assessment Method on Aging Offshore Platforms with Corrosion and Cracks