ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2009 Vol.(1)

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Hybrid Verification of A Deepwater Cell-Truss Spar
SU Yi-hua, YANG Jian-min, XIAO Long-fei
2009, (1): 1-14.
Hybrid model testing technique is widely used in verification of a deepwater floating structure and its mooring system, but the design of the truncated mooring systems which can reproduce both static and dynamic response same as the full-depth mooring system is still a big challenge, especially for the mooring systems with large truncation. A Cell-Truss Spar operated in 1500 m water depth is verified in a wave basin with 4 m water depth. A large truncation factor arises even though a small model scale 1:100 is adopted. Computer program modules for analyzing the static and frequency domain dynamic response of mooring line are combined with multi-objective genetic algorithm NSGA-II to optimize the truncated mooring system. Considering the asymmetry of layout of mooring lines, two different truncated mooring systems are respectively designed for both directions in which the restoring forces of the mooring system are quite different. Not only the static characteristics of the mooring systems are calibrated, but also the dynamic responses of the single truncated mooring line are evaluated through time domain numerical simulation and model tests. The model test results of 100-year storm in the GOM are reconstructed and extrapolated to a full depth. It is found that the experimental and numerical results of Spar wave frequency motion agree well, and the dynamic responses of the full-depth mooring lines are better reproduced, but the low frequency surge motion is overestimated due to the smaller mooring-induced damping. It is a feasible method adopting different truncated mooring systems for different directions in which the restoring force characteristics are quite different and cannot be simulated by one truncated mooring system. Hybrid verification of a deepwater platform in wave basin with shallow water depth is still feasible if the truncated mooring systems are properly designed, and numerical extrapolation is necessary.
Reliability-Based Load and Resistance Factors Design for Offshore Jacket Platforms in the Bohai Bay: Calibration on Target Reliability Index
JIN Wei-liang, HU Qi-zhong, SHEN Zhao-wei, SHI Zhong-min
2009, (1): 15-26.
The target reliability index has been effectively used as the best solution to deal with the relationship between the structural safety and the optimal economy in any structural design. However, the target reliability index for off-shore jacket platforms based on different sea areas in China has never been calibrated. This paper presents an approach for its calibration, and suggests many kinds of associated load cases. The uncertainties of loads and structural resistance are mainly investigated. The target reliability index for structural components, tubular joints and piles of offshore jacket platforms are discussed respectively in detail. Finally, through the calibrated results from the offshore jacket platforms of QK18-1, JZ20-2, SZ36-1 and BZ28-1 in the Bohai Bay, it is proposed to adopt 2.8 as the target reliability index of offshore jacket platforms in the Bohai Bay for a 25-year design period. The results provide significant reference for the design of offshore jacket platforms.
On the Exceedance Probabilities of Extreme Drift Motions of An Offshore Structure
WANG Ying-guang, TAN Jia-hua, XUE Lei-ping
2009, (1): 27-35.
The response statistics of a compliant offshore structure excited by slowly varying wave drift forces is calculated by use of a numerical path integral solution method. The path integral solution is based on the Gauss-Legendre interpolation scheme, and the values of the response probability density are obtained at the Gauss quadrature points in sub-intervals. It is demonstrated that a distinct advantage of the path integral solution is that the joint probability density of the response displacement and velocity is one of the by products of the calculations. This makes it possible to calculate the mean level up-crossing rates, which provides estimates of the exceedance probabilities of specified response levels for given time periods.
Nonlinear Dynamic Responses of Tension Leg Platform with Slack-Taut Tether
ZENG Xiao-hui, LI Xuan-wen, LIU Yang, WU Ying-xiang
2009, (1): 37-48.
The slack-taut state of tether is a particular adverse circumstance, which may influence the normal operation state of tension leg platform (TLP). The dynamic responses of TLP with slack-taut tether are studied with consideration of several nonlinear factors introduced by large amplitude motions. The time histories of stresses of tethers of a typical TLP in slack-taut state are given. In addition, the sensitivities of slack to stiffness and mass are investigated by varying the stiffness of tether and mass of TLP. It is found that slack is sensitive to the mass of TLP. The critical curved surfaces (over which indicates the slack) for the increase of mass are obtained.
A Stability Criterion for Time-Delay Tension Leg Platform Systems Subjected to External Force
Chen-Yuan CHEN, Chien-wen SHEN, Cheng-Wu CHEN, Kevin Fong-Rey LIU, Ming-Jen CHENG
2009, (1): 49-57.
Stability analysis plays a central role in nonlinear system theory and engineering application. Over the past few years, the stability analysis of fuzzy systems has been proposed and there are many successful applications in practical engineering. Therefore, in this paper firstly proposed is the stability analysis on oceanic structure by fuzzy models. In the present study, Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is proposed for a time delay tension leg platform(TLP) system subjected to an external wave force. In terms of stability analysis, linear matrix inequality (LMI) conditions are derived via Lyapunov theory to guarantee the stability of the TLP system.
Numerical Simulation of Spatial Lag Between Wave Breaking Point and Location of Maximum Wave-Induced Current
ZHENG Jin-hai, TANG Yu
2009, (1): 59-71.
A quasi three-dimensional numerical model of wave-driven coastal currents with the effects of surface rollers is developed for the study of the spatial lag between the location of the maximum wave-induced current and the wave breaking point. The governing equations are derived from Navier-Stokes equations and solved by the hybrid method combining the fractional step finite different method in the horizontal plane with a Galerkin finite element method in the vertical direction. The surface rollers effects are considered through incorporating the creation and evolution of the roller area into the free surface shear stress. An energy equation facilitates the computation process which transfers the wave breaking energy dissipation to the surface roller energy. The wave driver model is a phase-averaged wave model based on the wave action balance equation. Two sets of laboratory experiments producing breaking waves that generated longshore currents on a planar beach are used to evaluate the model忆s performance. The present wave-driven coastal current model with the roller effect in the surface shear stress term can produce satisfactory results by increasing the wave-induced nearshore current velocity inside the surf zone and shifting the location of the maximum longshore current velocity landward.
Theoretical Analysis of A Buoyant Jet Interacting with Small Amplitude Waves
Ying-Pin LIN, Hung-Chu HSU, Yang-Yih CHEN
2009, (1): 73-84.
A new theoretical solution is presented here for the dynamic characteristics of a buoyant jet due to opposing small amplitude waves. The conservation equations of mass, tangential momentum and vertical momentum are solved by the integral method which encompasses the Gaussian profiles of velocity and density. The action of waves is incorporated into the equations of motion as an external force and a new exact solution is obtained to predict the trajectory, velocity distribution and boundary thickness of the buoyant jet over an arbitrary lateral cross section. It is found that the velocity along the centerline is inversely proportional to the ratio of the momentum of the wave to the buoyant jet. The averaged boundary width varies with the fluctuation of the boundary width, the distance from the orifice and the velocity correction function. Owing to the motion of waves, the fluctuation of the boundary width is proportional to the wave steepness.
Estimation of Tsunami Run-up Height by Three Artificial Neural Network Methods
2009, (1): 85-94.
Tsunami run-up height is a significant parameter for dimensions of coastal structures. In the present study, tsunami run-up heights are estimated by three different Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models, i. e. Feed For ward Back Propagation (FFBP), Radial Basis Functions (RBF) and Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN). As the input for the ANN configuration, the wave height (H) values are employed. It is shown that the tsunami run-up height values are closely approximated with all of the applied ANN methods. The ANN estimations are slightly superior to those of the empirical equation. It can be seen that the ANN applications are especially significant in the absence of adequate number of laboratory experiments. The results also prove that the available experiment data set can be extended with ANN simulations. This may be helpful to decrease the burden of the experimental studies and to supply results for comparisons.
Distribution of Time-Averaged Suspended Sediment Concentration Due to Waves
YAN Bing, ZHANG Qing-he
2009, (1): 95-106.
According to the mechanism of sediment suspension under waves, namely, the main reason of sediment suspension changes from the turbulent mixing in the bottom boundary layer to the periodic motion of the water particle near the free water surface, a three-layer model of sediment concentration distribution due to waves is presented along the whole water depth based on the concept of the finite mixing length. The determination of the parameters in the model is discussed and an empirical formula is suggested. Comparisons between the calculated results and the measurements indicate that the results of the model agree well with the data from both the large and small scale flume experiments.
Soil Plug Effect Prediction and Pile Driveability Analysis for Large-Diameter Steel Piles in Ocean Engineering
LIU Run, YAN Shu-wang, LI Zhi-hua
2009, (1): 107-118.
Long steel piles with large diameters have been more widely used in the field of ocean engineering. Owing to the pile with a large diameter, soil plug development during pile driving has great influences on pile driveability and bearing capacity. The response of soil plug developed inside the open-ended pipe pile during the dynamic condition of pile-driving is different from the response under the static condition of loading during service. This paper addresses the former aspect. A numerical procedure for soil plug effect prediction and pile driveability analysis is proposed and described. By taking into consideration of the pile dimension effect on side and tip resistance, this approach introduces a dimensional coefficient to the conventional static equilibrium equations for the plug differential unit and proposes an improved static equity method for the plug effect prediction. At the same time, this approach introduces a simplified model by use of one-dimensional stress wave equation to simulate the interaction between soil plug and pile inner wall. The proposed approach has been applied in practical engineering analyses.Results show that the calculated plug effect and pile driveability based on the proposed approach agree well with the observed data.
Physical Modeling and Parametric Study on Two-Degree-of-Freedom VIV of A Cylinder near Rigid Wall
YANG Bing, GAO Fu-ping, LI Dong-hui, WU Ying-xiang
2009, (1): 119-132.
Unlike most previous studies on the transverse vortex-induced vibration(VIV) of a cylinder mainly under the wall-free condition (Williamson & Govardhan, 2004), this paper experimentally investigates the vortex-induced vibration of a cylinder with two degrees of freedom near a rigid wall exposed to steady flow. The amplitude and frequency responses of the cylinder are discussed. The lee wake flow patterns of the cylinder undergoing VIV were visualized by employing the hydrogen bubble technique. The effects of the gap-to-diameter ratio (e0 / D) and the mass ratio on the vibration amplitude and frequency are analyzed. Comparisons of VIV response of the cylinder are made between one degree (only transverse) and two degrees of freedom (streamwise and transverse) and those between the present study and previous ones. The experimental observation indicates that there are two types of streamwise vibration, i. e. the first streamwise vibration (FSV) with small amplitude and the second streamwise vibration (SSV) which coexists with transverse vibration. The vortex shedding pattern for the FSV is approximately symmetric and that for the SSV is alternate. The first streamwise vibration tends to disappear with the decrease of e0 / D. For the case of large gap-to-diameter ratios (e. g. e0 / D =0. 54 ~ 1. 58), the maximum amplitudes of the second streamwise vibration and transverse one increase with the increasing gap-to-diameter ratio. But for the case of small gap-to-diameter ratios (e. g. e0 / D =0. 16, 0. 23), the vibration amplitude of the cylinder increases slowly at the initial stage (i. e. at small reduced velocity Vr), and across the maximum amplitude it decreases quickly at the last stage (i. e. at large Vr). Within the range of the examined small mass ratio (m* <4), both streamwise and transverse vibration amplitude of the cylinder decrease with the increase of mass ratio for the fixed value of Vr. The vibration range (in terms of Vr) tends to widen with the decrease of the mass ratio. In the second streamwise vibration region, the vibration frequency of the cylinder with a small mass ratio (e. g. m*x = 1. 44) undergoes a jump at a certain Vr. The maximum amplitudes of the transverse vibration for two-degree-of-freedom case is larger than that for one-degree-of-freedom case, but the transverse vibration frequency of the cylinder with two degrees of freedom is lower than that with one degree of freedom (transverse).
Design of Low-Power Data Logger of Deep Sea for Long-Term Field Observation
ZHAO Wei, CHEN Ying, YANG Can-jun, CAO Jian-wei, GU Lin-yi
2009, (1): 133-144.
This paper describes the implementation of a data logger for the real-time in-situ monitoring of hydrothermal systems. A compact mechanical structure ensures the security and reliability of data logger when used under deep sea. The data logger is a battery powered instrument, which can connect chemical sensors (pH electrode, H2 S e lectrode, H2 electrode) and temperature sensors. In order to achieve major energy savings, dynamic power management is implemented in hardware design and software design. The working current of the data logger in idle mode and active mode is 15 μA and 1.44 mA respectively, which greatly extends the working time of battery. The data logger has been successfully tested in the first Sino-American Cooperative Deep Submergence Project from August 13 to September 3, 2005.
An Efficient Hydrodynamic Model for Surface Waves
WANG Kun, JIN Sheng, LIU Gang
2009, (1): 145-156.
In the present study, a semi-implicit finite difference model for non-hydrostatic, free-surface flows is analyzed and discussed. The governing equations are the three-dimensional free-surface Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations defined on a general, irregular domain of arbitrary scale. At outflow, a combination of a sponge layer technique and a radiation boundary condition is applied to minimize wave reflection. The equations are solved with the fractional step method where the hydrostatic pressure component is determined first, while the non-hydrostatic component of the pressure is computed from the pressure Poisson equation in which the coefficient matrix is positive definite and symmetric. The advection and horizontal viscosity terms are discretized by use of a semi-Lagrangian approach. The resulting model is computationally efficient and unrestricted to the CFL condition. The developed model is verified against analytical solutions and experimental data, with excellent agreement.
Efficient Simulation of Freak Waves in Random Oceanic Sea States
ZHANG Yun-qiu, HU Jin-peng, ZHANG Ning chuan
2009, (1): 157-165.
Numerical simulations of freak wave generation are studied in random oceanic sea states described by JONSWAP spectrum. The evolution of initial random wave trains is numerically carried out within the framework of the modified four-order nonlinear Schroedinger equation (mNLSE), and some involved influence factors are also discussed. Results show that if the sideband instability is satisfied, a random wave train may evolve into a freak wave train, and simultaneously the setting of the Phillips parameter and enhancement coefficient of JONSWAP spectrum and initial random phases is very important for the formation of freak waves. The way to increase the generation efficiency of freak waves thsough changing the involved parameters is also presented.
Non-Linear Response of Tethers Subjected to Parametric Excitation in Submerged Floating Tunnels
SUN Sheng-nan, CHEN Jian-yun, LI Jing
2009, (1): 167-174.
For the study of the non-linear response of inclined tethers subjected to parametric excitation in submerged floating tunnels, a theoretical model for coupled tube-tether vibration is developed. Upon the assumption that the static equilibrium position of the tether is a quadratic parabola, the governing differential equations of the tether motion are derived by use of the Hamilton principle. An approximate numerical solution is obtained by use of Galerkin method and Runge-kutta method. The results show that, when the static equilibrium position of the tether is assumed to be a quadratic parabola, the tether sag effect on its vibration may be reflected; the tether sag results in the asymmetry of tether vibration amplitude; for the reduction of the tether amplitude, the buoyant unit weight of the tether should approach to zero as far as possible during the design.
Design Research on Drive System of Underwater Tapping Machine
YU Kai-an
2009, (1): 175-184.
The underwater tapping machine is composed of a center bit, a tapping cutter, a seal box, a main drive box, a boring bar assembly, a envelop, a gear case, a counter and so on. The drive system in underwater tapping machine consists of a worm drive, a gear drive system and a screw drive. The worm drive is in the main drive box. The worm is connected with a hydraulic motor and driven by the hydraulic motor. The gear drive system is a combined gear train which is the combinations of the fixed axes and differential gear train in the gear case. On the one hand, by means of the fixed axes gear trains the turn and power of transmission shaft are transferred to the boring bar and the screw rod, causing differential turn between the boring bar and the screw rod. On the other hand, the turns of the boring bar and the screw rod are transferred to the differential gear train. The differential gear train is used to drive a special counter to count axial travel of the boring bar. The screw drive is composed of a feed screw and a nut on the boring bar. There is the differential turn between the boring bar and the feed screw. By means of the nut, the boring bar can feed automatically. With the movement of the sliding gear 7 in the gear case, the designed drive system can also be provided with the ability of fast forward and fast backward movement of the boring bar in its idle motion, resulting in the increase of the tapping efficiency.

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