ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2010 Vol.(1)

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Second-Oorder Analytic Solutions of Nonlinear Interactions of Edge Waves on A Plane Sloping Bottom
HONG Guang-wen, ZHANG Yu
2010, (1): 1-14.
Based on the full water-wave equation, a second-order analytic solution for nonlinear interaction of short edge waves on a constant plane sloping bottom is presented in this paper. For special case of slope angle b=p/2, this solution can be reduced to the same order solution of deep water gravity surface waves traveling along parallel coastline. Interactions between two edge waves including progressive, standing and partially reflected standing waves were also discussed. The unified analytic expressions with transfer functions for kinematic-dynamic elements of edge waves were also discussed. The random model of the unified wave motion processes for linear and nonlinear irregular edge waves is formulated, and the corresponding theoretical autocorrelation and spectral density functions of the first and second orders are derived. The boundary conditions for the determining determination of the parameters of short edge wave are suggested, that may be seen as one special simple edge wave excitation mechanism and an extension to the sea wave refraction theory. Finally some computation results are demonstrated.
A Numerical Model for Nonlinear Wave Propagation on Non-uniform Current
ZHANG Hong-sheng, WANG Wei-yuan, FENG Wen-jing, YANG Jian-min, LU Shi-qiang
2010, (1): 15-28.
On the basis of the new type Boussinesq equations (Madsen et al., 2002), a set of equations explicitly including the effects of currents on waves are derived. A numerical implementation of the present equations in one dimension is described. The numerical model is tested for wave propagation in a wave flume of uniform depth with current present. The present numerical results are compared with those of other researchers. It is validated that the numerical model can reasonably reflect the nonlinear influences of currents on waves. Moreover, the effects of inputting different incident boundary conditions on the calculated results are studied.
Study of Partial Coefficients for Design of Semicircular Breakwaters
QIE Lu-wen, Byung Ho CHOI
2010, (1): 29-40.
In the present study, the reliability design of semicircular breakwater is based on the verification of the rules defined by standard specifications, where partial coefficients are introduced to ensure safety. The reliability of the semicircular breakwaters has been analyzed by using the Hasofer-Lind method to determine the reliability index of structure that has correlated loads, utilizing the long-term observed wave data at a given place. The relation curve between reliability index and safety factor in the traditional design method, as well as the relationships between reliability index and partial coefficients, have been obtained. This paper proposes values of partial coefficients for the design expression of semicircular breakwaters in the cases of anti-sliding and anti-overturning.
A Time-Domain Coupled Model for Nonlinear Wave Forces on A Fixed Box-Shaped Ship in A Harbor
WANG Da-guo, ZOU Zhi-li, Tham Leslie George, LIU Xia
2010, (1): 41-56.
A 2-D time-domain numerical coupled model is developed to obtain an efficient method for nonlinear wave forces on a fixed box-shaped ship in a harbor. The domain is divided into an inner domain and an outer domain. The inner domain is the area beneath the ship and the flow is described by the simplified Euler equations. The other area is the outer domain and the flow is defined by the higher-order Boussinesq equations in order to consider the nonlinearity of the wave motions. Along the interface boundaries between the inner domain and the outer domain, the volume flux is assumed to be continuous and the wave pressures are equal. Relevant physical experiment is conducted to validate the present model. It is shown that the numerical results agree with the experimental data. Compared the coupled model with the flow in the inner domain governed by the Laplace equation, the present coupled model is more efficient and its solution procedure is more simple, which is particularly useful for the study on the effect of the nonlinear wave forces on a fixed box-shaped ship in a large harbor.
Discussion on Wave Transmission Coefficient Formulae of Submerged Breakwaters
ZUO Qi-hua, LI Peng, TENG Ling, WANG Deng-ting
2010, (1): 57-66.
Fifteen formulae of wave transmission coefficient for submerged breakwaters obtained during last 3 decades are presented, compared, and analyzed in this paper. The dimensionless parameters mainly involved in this discussion are the relative submerged depth Rc/h , relative wave height Rc/hi , relative rubble size B/D50, relative breakwater width B/sqrt(HiL0) and wave breaker index ξ . It indicates that there exist notable differences among the computed results, which mainly originate from the limited experimental conditions and different analytical methods, even though the major tendency keeps similar. It is necessary to conduct more systematic studies to obtain better understanding about the mechanism of wave transmission over submerged breakwaters.
Experimental Investigation of Irregular Wave Uplift Force on Deck of Exposed High-pile Jetties
CHEN Guo-ping, MENG Yan-qiu, YAN Shi-chang
2010, (1): 67-78.
A laboratory setup was developed to investigate irregular wave uplift loads on exposed high-pile jetties. It is shown that the dimensionless uplift load increases to the maximum with an increasing relative clearance and then decreases. The relative clearance corresponding to the peak force is linked to a range from 0.4 to 0.8.When the relative clearance exceeds a certain value, the wave can not reach the underside of the deck and the force becomes zero. Distinct trends of dimensionless force with a relative width of deck show that the force tends to decrease as the relative deck width increases, and then the decrease slows down after the relative deck width increases or decreases to a certain value. The pressure distribution length associated with the maximum uplift force is equivalent to the wave contact width x. When x is larger than the width of deck B, it is taken as B. The statistical distribution of loads obeys the Weibull distribution. The results from the analyses of the real data suggest a new dimensionless prediction model on wave-in-deck uplift loads and the conversion ratio between wave loads at different exceedance probabilities. A comparison is made between the new prediction model with the existing widely used three prediction models. These results are used as useful references for structural design of the jetty.
A New Wetting and Drying Method for Moving Boundary in Shallow Water Flow Models
SUN Jian, TAO Jian-hua
2010, (1): 79-92.
To deal with the moving boundary hydrodynamic problems of the tidal flats in shallow water flow models, a new wetting and drying (WD) method is proposed. In the new method, a “predicted water depth” is evaluated explicitly based on the simplified shallow water equations and used to determine the status (wet or dry) together with the direction of flow. Compared with previous WD method, besides the water elevation, more factors, such as the flow velocity and the surface shear stress, are taken into account in the new method to determine the moving boundary. In addition, a formula is deduced to determine the threshold, as critical water depth, which needs to be preset before simulations. The new WD method is tested with five cases including three 1D ones and two 2D ones. The results show that the new WD method can simulate the wetting and drying process, in both typical and practical cases, with smooth manner and achieves effective estimation of the retention volume at shallow water body.
Probability of Sediment Incipient Motion Under Complex Flows
LIU Chun-rong, DENG Li-ying, HUHE Aode
2010, (1): 93-104.
Presented in this paper is a mathematical model to calculate the probability of the sediment incipient motion, in which the effects of the fluctuating pressure and the seepage are considered. The instantaneous bed shear velocity and the pressure gradient on the bed downstream of the backward-facing step flow are obtained according to the PIV measurements. It was found that the instantaneous pressure gradient on the bed obeys normal distribution. The probability of the sediment incipient motion on the bed downstream of the backward-facing step flow is given by the mathematical model. The predicted results agree well with the experiment in the region downstream of the reattachment point while larger discrepancy between the theory and experiment is seen in the region near the reattachment point. The possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.
A Novel Method for Real-Time Monitoring of Channel Siltation Based on Bistatic Scattering Theory
HOU Peng, XU Wen-hai, WANG Jun-sheng, LI Ying
2010, (1): 105-115.
Monitoring the thickness changes of channel siltation is paramount in safeguarding navigation and guiding dredging. This paper presents a novel method for realizing the field monitoring of channel siltation in real time. The method is based on the bistatic scattering theory and concerned more with the receiving and processing of multipath signal at high-frequency and small grazing angle. By use of the multipath propagation structure of underwater acoustic channel, the method obtains the silt thickness by calculating the relative time delay of acoustic signals between the direct and the shortest bottom reflected paths. Bistatic transducer pairs are employed to transmit and receive the acoustic signals, and the GPS time synchronization technology is introduced to synchronize the transmitter and receiver. The WRELAX (Weighted Fourier transform and RELAX) algorithm is used to obtain the high resolution estimation of multipath time delay. To examine the feasibility of the presented method and the accuracy and precision of the developed system, a series of sea trials are conducted in the southwest coast area of Dalian City, north of the Yellow Sea. The experimental results are compared with that using high-resolution dual echo sounder HydroBox?, and the uncertainty is smaller than ± 0.06 m. Compared with the existing means for measuring the silt thickness, the presented method is innovative, and the system is stable, efficient and provides a better real-time performance. It especially suits monitoring the narrow channel with rapid changes of siltation.
Identifying Indicator Species in Habitats Created by Coastal Structures
Yi-Yu KUO, Chun-Han SHIH, Ying-Chou LEE, Wei-Tse CHANG, Ta-Jen CHU
2010, (1): 117-134.
In this paper, three approachs were developed to find indicator species from the habitat created by coastal structures. These approachs consist of a model of species co-occurrence probability, a model of k-environmental factor probability and a composite model. Simultaneously, and a case study was conducted in Hsinchu Fishing Port of North-western Taiwan. Based on the aforementioned models, three primary producer species, Ahnfeltiopsis flabelliformis, Chondrus ocellatus and Sarcodia montagneana, were chosen as the indicator species which had the highest co-occurrence probabilities and showed greater tolerance to more critical environment. It is imperative to understand how the three species under particular co-occurring conditions and environmental factors influence the composition of sessile assemblages in coastal water. The results indicate that for the purpose of increasing biodiversity, these models are feasible to find indicator species of artificial structures, and to help make it possible to design coastal structures based on biological considerations. This study provides an innovative approach for further advanced application in the artificial habitat of coast management.
Numerical Simulation of Self-Excited and Forced Vibrating Circular Cylinders in Current
HE Chang-jiang, DUAN Zhong-dong, OU Jin-ping
2010, (1): 135-144.
Numerical simulations of a low-mass-damping circular cylinder which can oscillate freely at transverse and streamwise directions are presented in this work. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved with finite volume method, and large eddy simulation of vortex is also performed in the calculation. In order to implement dynamic mesh, overlapping grids are generated to lessen the computation for mesh field itself. Self-excited vibrations are firstly calculated to obtain the average amplitudes and frequencies of the target circular cylinder in the current flow situation, and then forced oscillations are implemented with parameters obtained in vortex-induced vibrations previously. With slight amplitude modulation, time series of displacements in vortex-induced vibrations are essentially harmonic. Regarding the fluid force, which are larger in forced oscillations than those in corresponding self-excited cases because the fluid subtracts energy from the forced cylinders. The phase angles between forces and displacements are 0o and 180o for self-excited case and forced case respectively. In vortex-induced vibrations, the interactions between fluid and structure produce some weakly energetic vortices which induce the modulations of amplitude and frequency.
Dynamic Analysis of the Seafloor Pilot Miner Based on Single-Body Vehicle Model and Discretized Track-Terrain Interaction Model
DAI Yu, LIU Shao-jun, LI Li
2010, (1): 145-160.
In order to achieve the complex dynamic analysis of the self-propelled seafloor pilot miner moving on the seafloor of extremely cohesive soft soil and further to make it possible to integrate the miner system with some subsystems to form the complete integrated deep ocean mining pilot system and perform dynamic analysis, a new method for the dynamic modeling and analysis of the miner is proposed and developed in this paper, resulting in a simplified 3D single-body vehicle model with three translational and three rotational degrees of freedom, while the track-terrain interaction model is built by partitioning the track-terrain interface into discrete elements with parameterized force elements built on the theory of terramechanics acting on each discrete element. To evaluate and verify the correctness and effectiveness of this new modeling and analysis method, typical comparative studies with regard to computational efficiency and solution accuracy are carried out between the traditional modeling method of building the tracked vehicle as a multi-body model and the new modeling method. In full consideration of the particular structure design of the pilot miner, the special characteristics of the seafloor soil and the hydrodynamic force of near-seafloor current, the dynamic simulation analysis of the miner is performed and discussed, which can provide useful guidance and reference for the practical miner system in design and operation. This new method can not only realize the rapid dynamic simulation analysis of the miner but also make possible the integration and rapid dynamic analysis of the complete integrated deep ocean mining pilot system in further researches.
Characteristics of Pore Water Pressure of Saturated Silt Under Wave Loading
GAO Yu-feng, ZHANG Jian, SHEN Yang, YAN Jun
2010, (1): 161-172.
The characteristics of dynamic stress in the seabed under wave loading are constant principal stress and continuous rotation of the principal stress direction. Cyclic triaxial-torsional coupling shear tests were performed on saturated silt by the hollow cylinder apparatus under different relative densities, deviator stress ratios and vibration frequencies to study the development of pore water pressure of the saturated silt under wave loading. It was found that the development of pore water pressure follows the trend of “fast~steady~drastic”. The turning point from fast to steady stage is not affected by relative density and deviator stress ratio. However, the turning point from steady to drastic stage relies on relative density and deviator stress ratio. The vibration cycle for the liquefaction of saturated silt decreases with increasing deviator stress ratio and increases with relative density. The vibration cycle for the liquefaction of the saturated silt increases with vibration frequency and reaches a peak value, after which it decreases with increasing vibration frequency for the relative density of 70%. But the vibration cycle for the liquefaction of saturated silt increases with vibration frequency for the relative density of 30%. The development of pore water pressure of the saturated silt is influenced by relative density and vibration frequency.
Performance Enhancement of Multiuser Passive Time Reversal Communication Based on Space-Time Block Coding
GONG Gai-yun, YAO Wen-bin, PAN Xiang, GONG Xian-yi
2010, (1): 173-182.
Reliable, with high data rate, acoustic communication in time-varying, multipath shallow water environment is a hot research topic recently. Passive time reversal communication has shown promising results in improvement of the system performance. In multiuser environment, the system performance is significantly degraded due to the interference among different users. Passive time reversal can reduce such interference by minimizing the cross-correlated version of channel impulse response among users, which can be realized by the well-separated users in depth. But this method also has its shortcomings, even with the absence of relative motion, the minimization sometimes may be impossible because of the time-varying environment. Therefore in order to avoid the limitation of minimizing the cross-correlated channel function, an approach of passive time reversal based on space-time block coding (STBC) is presented in this paper. In addition, a single channel equalizer is used as a post processing technique to reduce the residual symbol interference. Experimental results at 13 kHz with 2 kHz bandwidth demonstrate that this method has better performance to decrease bit error rate and improve signal to noise ratio, compared with passive time reversal alone or passive time reversal combined with equalization.
Experimental Study of A Pile-Restrained Floating Breakwater Constructed of Pontoon and Plates
WANG Yong-xue, DONG Hua-yang, LIU Chong
2010, (1): 183-190.
A pile-restrained pontoon-plate floating breakwater is proposed in this paper. The laboratory physical-model tests are conducted to investigate the wave-dissipation property and heave-motion response of a model. The influence of the model’s geometric parameters including relative pontoon width, plate width, number of plates and pontoon draft on wave-dissipation performance and heave-motion response are discussed, as well as the correlation between these two factors. The result indicates that wave-dissipation performance of the proposed structure is better than the pontoon structure: its transmission coefficient and heave-motion height are reduced by 0.2 and 0.3, respectively, in comparison with those of the pile-restrained pontoon model at a relative pontoon width of 0.2.
Dynamic Responses of Pontoons Connecting Process of Mobile Offshore Base
TAN Zhen-dong, ZHANG Yu, WANG Guang-dong, ZHANG Xing, SHAO Xiang-jun
2010, (1): 191-198.
The dynamic responses of two pontoons while connected with each other in irregular waves are calculated by means of three-dimensional (3-D) potential flow theory. The computation is to find the optimal status for connection at a certain sea state. On the basis of the relative motion of two pontoons in irregular waves, Visual FORTRAN programming language, as well as OpenGL (Open Graphics Library), is used to develop a set of virtual reality system of the relative motion of two pontoons, which is fully interactive with realistic effect. The transfinite interpolation scheme is applied for the mesh generation of wave surface, and the wave motion is simulated by surface elevation and calculated by 3-D potential flow theory.
Ray Theory Application in Long Baseline System
JI Da-xiong, LIU Jian
2010, (1): 199-206.
The long baseline (LBL) system is widely used to locate and track autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) through acoustic communication. Three important issues are presented here in LBL system application with AUV. Those issues which regard the normal acoustic communication between LBL system and AUV are the depth of towed array, the length of beacon cable, and the effective area of the AUV. The first issue is the key of the LBL system, which ensures the normal communication between towed array and beacons. The second issue which impacts the normal communication from the AUV to beacons in available range should be considered after the first one has been settled. Then the last issue determines the safe work area of the AUV. The ordinary differential equations (ODE) algorithm of ray is deduced from Snell's law. The ODE algorithm is applied to obtain sound rays from sound source to receiver. These problems are solved by the judgment that whether rays pinging from a sound source arrives at a receiver. The sea trial shows that these methods have much validity and practicality.

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