ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2010 Vol.(2)

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Numerical Simulation on Oscillation-Sliding-Uplift Rock Coupled Motion of Caisson Breakwater Under Wave Excitation
WANG Yuan-zhan, GONG Wei, CHI Li-hua
2010, (2): 207-218.
Corresponding to the sliding and the overturning failure, the elementary motion modes of caisson breakwater include the horizontal-rotational oscillation coupled motion, the horizontal sliding-rotational oscillation coupled motion, the horizontal vibrating-uplift rocking coupled motion, and the horizontal sliding- uplift rocking coupled motion. The motion mode of a caisson will transform from one to another depending on the wave forces and the motion behaviors of the caisson. The numerical models of four motion modes of caisson are developed, and the numerical simulation procedure for joint motion process of various modes of caisson breakwater under wave excitation is presented and tested by a physical model experiment. It is concluded that the simulation procedure is reliable and can be applied to the dynamic stability analysis of caisson breakwaters.
Full Coupled Effects of Hull, Mooring and Risers Model in Time Domain Based on an Innovative Deep Draft Multi-Spar
LI Bin-bin, OU Jin-ping, TENG Bin
2010, (2): 219-233.
The coupled hull, mooring and riser analysis techniques in time domain are widely recognized as the unique approach to predict the accurate global motions. However, these complex issues have not been perfectly solved due to a large number of nonlinear factors, e.g. forces nonlinearity, mooring nonlinearity, motion nonlinearity and so on. This paper investigates the coupled effects through the numerical uncoupled model, mooring coupled model and fully coupled model accounting mooring and risers based on a novel deep draft multi-spar which is especially designed for deepwater in 2009. The numerical static-offset, free-decay, wind-action tests are executed, and finally the three hours simulations are conducted under 100-year return period of GOM conditions involving wave, wind and current actions. The damping contributions, response characteristics and mooring line tensions are emphatically studied.
Evaluation of Diffraction Predictability in Two Phase Averaged Wave Models
CHEN Xiao-wen, ZHENG Jin-hai, ZHANG Chi, YANG Qiong
2010, (2): 235-244.
Two different methods for incorporating diffraction effect into wave action balance equation based coastal spectral wave models, WABED and SWAN, are discussed and evaluated with respect to their formulations, numerical implementations, and modeling capabilities. Both models were run to simulate the wave transformation through a gap between two infinitely long breakwaters and that across an elliptical shoal observed in laboratory studies, with the emphasis laid on the diffraction induced by either obstacles or wave amplitude variations. Calculations of WABED were compared with Sommerfeld’s analytical solutions, experimental observations and SWAN simulations. It is shown that both methods can predict reasonably wave diffraction for the two cases studied herein, and a fairly better performance is provided by WABED for stronger diffraction case.
Derivation of Parametric Tropical Cyclone Models for Storm Surge Modeling
WANG Zhi-li, LU Yong-jun, GENG Yan-fen
2010, (2): 245-254.
In this paper, the parametric tropical cyclone models for storm surge modeling are further developed. Instead of tangential wind speed via cyclostrophic balance and radial wind speed using a simple formulation of defection angle, the analytical expressions of tangential and radial wind speed distribution are derived from the governing momentum equations based on the general symmetric pressure distribution of Holland and Fujita. The radius of the maximum wind is estimated by tropical cyclone wind structure which is characterized by the radial extent of special wind speed. The shape parameter in the pressure model is estimated by the data of several tropical cyclones that occurred in the East China Sea. Finally, the Fred cyclone (typhoon 199417) is calculated, and comparisons of the measured and calculated air pressures and wind speed are presented.
A New Model for Velocity Profiles in Estuarine Waters
Ni Zhi-hui, Song Zhi-yao, Wu Li-chun
2010, (2): 255-264.
Water motion in estuarine waters is the result of the action of various dynamic factors. Firstly, based on the hydrodynamic characteristics in estuarine waters, neglecting the nonlinear effects of various flow hydrodynamic factors, the logarithm velocity profile of tidal current and the cubic velocity profile of Hansen and Rattray (1965) made to linear superposition at a sense of first order, a new model for velocity profile in estuarine waters is established. Then, by introducing the least square method combination of enumeration, the velocity profile data of wind-driven current measured in the laboratory and that observed at the North and the South Branches of the Yangtze Estuary are verified, and compared with other formulas, all with satisfactory results. The results show that the new model not only considers the influences of various dynamic factors, such as tide, wind force, run-off and density pressure with high accuracy, but also provides reasonable boundary conditions on the bottom for hydrodynamics numerical simulation in estuarine waters. Thereby, the accuracy and credibility of numerical computation and prediction of water flow are improved. The research is theoretically important for the estuarine hydrodynamics.
Probabilistic Approach of Coastal Defense against Typhoon Attacks for Nuclear Power Plant
LIU De-fu, HAN Feng-ting, PANG Liang, LI Hua-jun, XIE Bo-tao, WANG Feng-qing
2010, (2): 265-275.
With the global warming and sea level rising, it is widely recognized that there is an increasing tendency of typhoon occurrence frequency and intensity. The defenses code against typhoon attacks for nuclear power plant should be calibrated because of the increasing threat of typhoon disaster and severe consequences. This paper discusses the probabilistic approach of definitions about “probable maximum typhoon" and “probable maximum storm surge” in nuclear safety regulations of China and has made some design code calibration by using a newly proposed Double Layer Nested Multi-objective Probability Model (DLNMPM).
Shoreline Change Modeling on Emergency Beach Nourishment Project on West Beach of Beidaihe, China
KUANG Cui-ping, PAN Yi, ZHANG Yu, LIU Shu-guang, YANG Yan-xiong, ZHANG Jia-bo
2010, (2): 277-289.
By use of a shoreline-change numerical model (GENESIS) based on one-line theory, a preliminary modeling study on shoreline changes caused by a beach nourishment project in Beidaihe, China, is presented in this paper. Firstly, the GENESIS model is verified and model sensitivity to the major parameter changes is discussed by simulating a hydraulic model test. The beach nourishment project, after that the shoreline change is kept being monitored, is a small-scale emergency one carried out to use two bathing places on the west beach in the summer, 2008. In this paper the shoreline changes caused by the beach nourishment project are modeled by the GENESIS model, and the computed results fit well with the measured shorelines. With the same model and parameters, a long-term performance of the project is predicted, and the result shows that the bathing places only can be suitable for bathing in 2 to 3 years without subsequence nourishment project. Therefore, it is proposed to nourish the beaches in time to keep the service life of the beach in recent years and carry out the beach nourishment project for the whole west beach as soon as possible.
Fatigue Characteristic Analysis of Deepwater steel Catenary Risers at the Touchdown point
FU Jun-jie, YANG He-zhen
2010, (2): 291-304.
This paper presents fatigue characteristic analysis of a deepwater steel catenary riser (SCR) under ambient excitations. The SCR involves complex nonlinear dynamic behaviors, especially at the touchdown point (TDP) where the riser first touches the seafloor. Owing to the significant interaction with soil, the touchdown zone is difficult to be modeled. Based on Lumped-Mass method and P-y curve, nonlinear springs are used to simulate the SCR-Seabed coupled interaction. In case studies, an SCR’s dynamic features have been obtained by transient analysis and the structure fatigue assessment has been carried out by S-N approach. The comparative analysis shows that the TDP is the key location where soil-riser interaction rises steeply and minimum fatigue life occurs. Parameters such as ocean environment loads, vessel motions, riser material and geometric parameters are discussed. The results indicate that the vessel motion is the principal factor to the structure fatigue life distribution.
Study on Model Tests and Hydrodynamic Force Models for Free Spanning Submarine Pipelines Subjected to Earthquakes
LI Ming-gao, LI Xin, DONG Ru-bo, ZHOU Jing, GUAN Jiong
2010, (2): 305-320.
A test rig is built to model the dynamic response of submarine pipelines with an underwater shaking table in the State Key Laboratory of Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, China. Model tests are carried out to consider the effects of exciting wave directions and types. Based on the experimental results, two hydrodynamic force models derived from Morison equation and Wake model are presented respectively. By use of hydrodynamic force models suitable for free spanning submarine pipelines under earthquakes, discretized equations of motion are obtained and finite element models are established to analyze dynamic response of free spanning submarine pipeline subject to multi-support seismic excitations. The comparison of numerical results with experimental results shows that the improved Morison and Wake hydrodynamic force models could satisfactorily predict dynamic response on the free spanning submarine pipelines subjected to earthquakes.
Isoparametric Boundary Element Method Applied to the Rectangular and Delta Hydrofoils near the Free Surface
2010, (2): 321-331.
In this paper, the hydrodynamic characteristics and flow field around rectangular and delta hydrofoils, moving with a constant speed beneath the free surface are numerically studied by means of isoparametric boundary element method (IBEM). The quantities (source and dipole strengths) and the geometry of the elements are represented by a linear distribution. Two types of three-dimensional hydrofoils (rectangular and delta) are selected with NACA4412 and symmetric Joukowski sections. Some numerical results of pressure distribution, lift, wave-making drag coefficients and velocity field around the hydrofoils are presented. Also, the wave pattern due to moving hydrofoil is predicted at different operational conditions. Comparisons are made between computational results obtained through this method and those from the experimental measurements and other numerical results which reveal good agreement.
Lateral Bearing Capacity of Multi-bucket Foundation in Soft Ground
Luan Mao-tian, SUN Xi-yuan, TANG Xiao-wei, FAN Qing-lai, K. Tim Law
2010, (2): 333-342.
The bucket foundation is a new type of foundation for offshore application to intermediate-depth waters. It has advantages over conventional ones. However, there is no consensus in the analysis and design of this type of foundation. In this paper, the lateral bearing capacity and the failure mechanism of multi-bucket foundations are studied with different connection stiffness and bucket spacing by use of a three-dimensional finite element method. Based on the numerical analysis results, a limit analysis method of plasticity for evaluating the lateral bearing capacity of large-spacing multi-bucket foundation with rigid connection in soft ground is proposed. This method provides a simple procedure that gives results comparable to those from the finite element analyses.
On Optimal Frequencies of Acoustic in-situ Detector for Seafloor Hydrothermal Vents
FAN Wei, PAN Hua-chen, PAN Yi-wen, WU Min-zhong, CHEN Ying
2010, (2): 343-351.
The approach to determine working frequencies of acoustic in-situ detector for seafloor hydrothermal fluid is presented. Based on the research of deep-sea noise and the sound generated by mid-ocean ridge black smoker hydrothermal vents, and on the hydrothermal-vent animal hearing ranges, coupled with influences of suspended particles of hydrothermal on acoustic attenuation under different frequencies, the optimal frequency range for detection of acoustical signal near black smokers is determined. The optimal frequencies providing the maximum ratio of receiver signal to background noise are obtained. We have developed a laboratory experimental setup for the optimal frequencies selection. In particular, we evaluated time-of-flight performance with respect to the source signal parameters of center frequency and bandwidth. The experimental results confirm the effectiveness of our approach. Current results indicate that individual transducers operated in the range of 18~25 kHz are immune to most interfering sounds and suitable for our system.
Modelling Solitary Waves and its Impact on Coastal Houses with SPH Method
LIANG Dong-fang, N. I. Thusyanthan, S. P. Gopal Madabhushi, TANG Hong-wu
2010, (2): 353-368.
The interaction between solid structures and free-surface flows is investigated in this study. A Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) model is used in the investigation and is verified against analytical solutions and experimental observations. The main aim is to examine the effectiveness of a tsunami-resistant house design by predicting the wave loads on it. To achieve this, the solitary wave generation and run-up are studied first. The solitary wave is generated by allowing a heavily weighted block to penetrate into a tank of water at one end, and the near-shore seabed is modelled by an inclined section with a constant slope. Then, the SPH model is applied to simulate the three-dimensional flows around different types of houses under the action of a solitary wave. It has been found that the tsunami-resistant house design reduces the impact force by a factor of three.
A Cascade Approach for Global Trajectory Tracking Control of Underactuated AUVs
BI Feng-yang, WEI Ying-jie, ZHANG Jia-zhong, CAO Wei
2010, (2): 369-380.
A global trajectory tracking controller is presented for underactuated AUVs with only surge force and yaw moment in the horizontal plane. A transformation is introduced to represent the tracking error system into a cascade form. The global and uniform asymptotic stabilization problem of the resulting cascade system is reduced to the stabilization problem of two subsystems by use of the cascade approach. For the stabilizzation of the subsystem involving the yaw moment, a control law is proposed based on the feedback linearization method. Another subsystem is stabilized by designing a fuzzy sliding mode controller which can offer a systematical means of constructing a set of shrinking-span and dilating-span membership functions. In order to demonstrate the practicability of the proposed controller, control constraints, parameter uncertainties and external disturbances are considered according to practical situation of AUVs. Simulation results show very good tracking performance and robustness of the proposed control schemes.
Study of A Geo-Acoustic Model of Gas-Bearing Sediment and Its Application in Sediment with Low Acoustic Velocity
TAO Chun-hui, LI Hong-xing, DENG Xian-ming, ZHOU Jian-ping, Fu Shun-sheng, R. H. Wilkens, GU Chun-hua, HE Yong-hua
2010, (2): 381-390.
A new geo-acoustic model for gas-bearing sediment is proposed based on the work of Dvorkin and Prasad, and Biot theory. Only five geophysical parameters: sediment mineral composition, free gas saturation, tortuosity (also known as the structure factor), permeability, and porosity, are considered in the model. A benefit of this model is that we need only five parameters instead of ten parameters in the Biot’s formulas for acoustic velocity and attenuation calculation. Here the model is demonstrated with the in-situ experimental data collected from the Hangzhou Bay, China. The results of this study suggest that free gas content in sediment is the most critical condition resulting in a low acoustic velocity (compressional wave). The respective contributions of the other four parameters in the model are also discussed.
Hydrodynamic Forces and Instability of Submarine Pipelines Under Waves and Currents: A Review
ZHAO Dong-yan, ZHOU Lei, HE Ning, WANG Feng-yun
2010, (2): 391-400.
Stability design of submarine pipelines is a very important procedure in submarine pipeline engineering design. The calculation of hydrodynamic forces caused by waves and currents acting on marine pipelines is an essential step in pipeline design for stability. The hydrodynamic forces-induced instabilities of submarine pipelines should be regarded as a wave/current-pipeline-seabed interaction problem. This paper presents a review on hydrodynamic forces and stability research of submarine pipelines under waves and currents. The representative progress including the improved design method and guideline has been made for the marine pipelines engineering design through experimental investigations, numerical simulations and analytical models. Finally, the further studies on this issue are suggested.

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