ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2011 Vol.(1)

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Study on Headland-Bay Sandy Coast Stability in South China Coasts
YU Ji-tao, CHEN Zi-shen
2011, (1): 1-13.
Headland-bay beach equilibrium planform has been a crucial problem abroad to long-term sandy beach evolution and stabilization, extensively applied to forecast long-term coastal erosion evolvement and the influences of coastal engineering as well as long-term coastal management and protection. However, little concern focuses on this in China. The parabolic relationship is the most widely used empirical relationship for determining the static equilibrium shape of headland-bay beaches. This paper utilizes the relation to predict and classify 31 headland-bay beaches and concludes that these bays cannot achieve the ultimate static equilibrium planform in South China. The empirical bay equation can morphologically estimate beach stabilization state, but it is just a referential predictable means and is difficult to evaluate headland-bay shoreline movements in years and decades. By using Digital Shoreline Analysis System suggested by USGS, the rates of shoreline recession and accretion of these different headland-bay beaches are quantitatively calculated from 1990 to 2000. The conclusions of this paper include that (a) most of these 31 bays maintain relatively stable and the rates of erosion and accretion are relatively large with the impact of man-made constructions on estuarine within these bays from 1990 to 2000; (b) two bays, Haimen Bay and Hailingshan Bay, originally in the quasi-static equilibrium planform determined by the parabolic bay shape equation , have been unstable by the influence of coastal engineering; and (c) these 31 bays have different recession and accretion characters occurring in some bays and some segments. On the one hand, some bays totally exhibit accretion, but some bays show erosion on the whole. Shanwei Bay, Houmen Bay, Pinghai Bay and Yazhou Bay have the similar planforms, characterized by less accretion on the sheltering segment and bigger accretion on the transitional and tangential segments. On the other hand, different segments of some bays have two dissimilar evolvement characters. Dacheng Bay, Shenquan Bay, Hudong Bay, Wukan Bay, Fengjia Bay, Wuchang Bay, Lingshui Bay and Tufu Bay produce accretion on the tangential segment, erosion on the transitional segment and accretion on the sheltering segment. However, Guang’ao Bay, Haimen Bay, Jinghai Bay, Sanya Bay(a), Dajiao Bay, Hailingshan Bay, Hebei Bay, Fuhu Bay, Shuidong Bay, Wangcun Bay and Bomao Bay generate erosion on the tangential part, accretion on the transitional part and accretion on the sheltering part. It seems to imply some relations between headland-bay beach evolvement and controls on headland-bay beaches, which may possibly to classify headland-bay beach types and should be further studied.
Undrained Bearing Capacity of Spudcan Under Combined Loading
WANG Li-zhong, SHU Heng, LI Ling-ling, GUO Zhen
2011, (1): 15-30.
The bearing capacities of spudcan foundation under pure vertical (V), horizontal (H), moment (M) loading and the combined loading are studied based on a series of three-dimensional finite element analysis. The effects of embedment ratio and soil non-homogeneity on the bearing capacity are investigated in detail. The capacities of spudcan under different pure loading are expressed in non-dimensional bearing capacity factors, which are compared with published results. Ultimate limit states under combined loading are presented by failure envelopes, which are expressed in terms of dimensionless and normalized form in three-dimensional load space. The comparison between the presented failure envelopes and available published numerical results reveals that the size and shape of failure envelopes are dependent on the embedment ratio and the non-homogeneity of the soil.
Analysis of Wave-Induced Liquefaction in Seabed Deposits of Silt
Gao Yu-feng, SHEN Yang, ZHANG Jian, LI Bing
2011, (1): 31-44.
The dynamic stress introduced in half elastic space by wave loading is characterized by the equation between the magnitude of half cyclic axial stress and cyclic torsion shear stress and the principal stress, whose direction rotates continuously and compression stress on seabed can be calculated by the use of small amplitude wave theory. Through With relationship curves of saturated silts of liquefaction cycles and cyclic stress ratios of obtained by cyclic triaxial-torsional coupling shear tests and curve fitting method to different data points of relative density, it is suggested that the cyclic stress ratio corresponding to constant liquefaction impedance be taken as the critical cyclic stress ratio which implies liquefaction. There exists a linear relationship between critical cyclic stress ratio and relative density sunder different relative densities. Empirical formula for critical cyclic stress ratios of seabed liquefaction induced by wave loading under different relative densities is established. The possibility of seabed silt liquefaction and its influence factors are analyzed based on the small-amplitude wave theory and the data acquired in laboratory tests and the small-amplitude wave theory and the data acquired in laboratory tests.
Prediction Method of Seismic Residual Deformation of Caisson Quay Wall in Liquefied Foundation
WANG Li-yan, LIU Han-long, JIANG Peng-ming, CHEN Xiang-xiang
2011, (1): 45-58.
The multi-spring shear mechanism plastic model in this paper is defined in strain space to simulate pore pressure generation and development in sands under cyclic loading and undrained conditions, and the rotation of principal stresses can also be simulated by the model with cyclic behavior of anisotropic consolidated sands. Seismic residual deformations of typical caisson quay walls under different engineering situations are analyzed in detail by the plastic model, and then an index of liquefaction extent is applied to describe the regularity of seismic residual deformation of caisson quay wall top under different engineering situations. Some correlated prediction formulas are derived from the results of regression analysis between seismic residual deformation of quay wall top and extent of liquefaction in the relative safety backfill sand site. Finally, the rationality and the reliability of the prediction methods are validated by test results of a 120 g-centrifuge shaking table, and the comparisons show that some reliable seismic residual deformation of caisson quay can be predicted by appropriate prediction formulas and appropriate index of liquefaction extent.
Hydrodynamics and Associated Sediment Transport over Coastal Wetlands in Quanzhou Bay, China
WANG Ai-jun
2011, (1): 59-72.
Coastal salt marshes represent an important coastal wetland system. In order to understand the differences between boundary layer parameters of vegetated and unvegetated areas, as well as the mechanisms of sediment transport, several electromagnetic current meters (AEM HR, products of Alec Electronics Co. Ltd.) were deployed in coastal wetlands in Quanzhou Bay, China, to measure current velocity. During the low tide phase, the surficial sediment was collected at 10 m intervals. In situ measurements show that the current velocities on the bare flat were much higher than those in the Spartina alterniflora marsh. Current velocity also varied with distance from marsh edge and plant canopy height and diameter. Around 63% of the velocity profiles in the tidal creek can be described by a logarithmic equation. Over the bare flat and Spartina alterniflora marsh, a logarithmic profile almost occurs during the flood tide phase. Sediment analysis shows that mean grain size was 6.7 Φ along the marsh edge, and surface sediments were transported from bare flat to marsh; the tidal creeks may change this sediment transport pattern. The hydrodynamics at early flood tide and late ebb tide phases determined the net transport direction within the study area.
CFD Simulation of Flow Features and Vorticity Structures in Tuna-Like Swimming
YANG Liang, SU Yu-min
2011, (1): 73-82.
The theoretical research on the propulsive principle of aquatic animal becomes more important and attracted more researchers to make efforts on it. In the present study, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of a three-dimensional traveling-wave undulations body of tuna has been developed to investigate the fluid flow features and vorticity structures around this body when moving in a straight line. The undulation only takes place in the posterior half of the fish, and the tuna-tail is considered as a lunate fin oscillating with the mode combined swaying with yawing. A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation is developed, employing a control-volume method and a k-omega SST turbulent model; meanwhile an unstructured tetrahedral grid, which is generated for the three-dimensional geometry, is used based on the deformation of the hind parts of the body and corresponding movement of the tail. We calculated the hydrodynamic performance of tuna-like body when a tuna swims in a uniform velocity, and compared the input power coefficient, output power coefficient and propulsive efficiency of the oscillating tuna-tail with or without body vortex shedding. Additionally, the load distribution on the body, flow features and vorticity structures around the body were demonstrated. The effect of interaction between the body-generated vortices and the tail-generated vorticity on the hydrodynamic performance can be obtained.
Experimental Study on Effect of A New Vortex Control Baffler and Its Influencing Factor
LIU Zhi-hua, XIONG Ying, WANG Zhan-zhi, WANG Song, TU Cheng-xu
2011, (1): 83-96.
The horseshoe vortex generated around the sail-body junction of submarine has an important influence on the non-uniformity of submarine wake at propeller disc. The flow characteristics in the horseshoe vortex generated area are analyzed, and a new method of vortex control baffler is presented. The influence of vortex control baffler on the flow field around submarine main body with sail is numerically simulated. The wind tunnel experiment on submarine model is carried out, and it is proved that the vortex control baffler can weaken the horseshoe vortex and decrease the non-uniformity of the wake at propeller disc. It is shown from the experiment results that the effect of vortex control baffler depends on its installation position; with a proper installation position, the non-uniform coefficient of submarine wake would be declined by about 50%; the Reynolds number of submarine model has an influence on the effect of vortex control baffler too, and the higher the Reynolds number is, the better the effect of the vortex control baffler is.
Dynamic Modeling and Motion Simulation for A Winged Hybrid-Driven Underwater Glider
WANG Shu-xin, SUN Xiu-jun, WANG Yan-hui, WU Jian-guo, WANG Xiao-ming
2011, (1): 97-112.
PETREL, a winged hybrid-driven underwater glider is a novel and practical marine survey platform which combines the features of legacy underwater glider and conventional AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle). It can be treated as a multi-rigid-body system with a floating base and a particular hydrodynamic profile. In this paper, theorems on linear and angular momentum are used to establish the dynamic equations of motion of each rigid body and the effect of translational and rotational motion of internal masses on the attitude control are taken into consideration. In addition, due to the unique external shape with fixed wings and deflectable rudders and the dual-drive operation in thrust and glide modes, the approaches of building dynamic model of conventional AUV and hydrodynamic model of submarine are introduced, and the tailored dynamic equations of the hybrid glider are formulated. Moreover, the behaviors of motion in glide and thrust operation are analyzed based on the simulation and the feasibility of the dynamic model is validated by data from lake field trials
Experimental Study on Mechanical Properties of Gas Hydrate-Bearing Sediments Using Kaolin Clay
LI Yang-hui, SONG Yong-chen, YU Feng, LIU Wei-guo, ZHAO Jia-fei
2011, (1): 113-122.
A triaxial system is designed with a temperature range from –20 ℃ to 25 ℃ and a pressure range from 0 MPa to 30 MPa in order to improve the understanding of the mechanical properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments. The mechanical properties of synthetic gas hydrate-bearing sediments (gas hydrate-kaolin clay mixture) were measured by using current experimental apparatus. The results indicate that: (1) the failure strength of gas hydrate-bearing sediments strongly depends on the temperature. The sediment’s strength increases with the decreases of temperature. (2) The maximum deviator stress increases linearly with the confining pressure at a low-pressure stage. However, it fluctuates at a high-pressure stage. (3) Maximum deviator stress increases with increasing strain rate, whereas the strain-stress curve has no tremendous change until the axial strain reaches approximately 0.5%. (4) The internal friction angles of gas hydrate-bearing sediments are not sensitive to kaolin volume ratio. The cohesion shows a high kaolin volume ratio dependency.
Dynamic Analysis of Tension Leg Platform for Offshore Wind Turbine Support as Fluid-Structure Interaction
HUANG Hu, ZHANG She-rong
2011, (1): 123-131.
Tension leg platform (TLP) for offshore wind turbine support is a new type structure in wind energy utilization. The strong-interaction method is used in analyzing the coupled model, and the dynamic characteristics of the TLP for offshore wind turbine support are recognized. As shown by the calculated results: for the lower modes, the shapes are water’s vibration, and the vibration of water induces the structure’s swing; the mode shapes of the structure are complex, and can largely change among different members; the mode shapes of the platform are related to the tower’s. The frequencies of the structure do not change much after adjusting the length of the tension cables and the depth of the platform; the TLP has good adaptability for the water depths and the environment loads. The change of the size and parameters of TLP can improve the dynamic characteristics, which can reduce the vibration of the TLP caused by the loads. Through the vibration analysis, the natural vibration frequencies of TLP can be distinguished from the frequencies of condition loads, and thus the resonance vibration can be avoided, therefore the offshore wind turbine can work normally in the complex conditions.
A Note on the Derivation of Wave Action Balance Equation in Frequency Space
Tai-Wen HSU, Jian-Ming LIAU, Shin-Jye LIANG, Shan-Hwei OU, Yi-Ting LI
2011, (1): 133-138.
In this paper the wave action balance equation in terms of frequency-direction spectrum is derived. A theoretical formulation is presented to generate an invariant frequency space to replace the varying wavenumber space through a Jacobian transformation in the wave action balance equation. The physical properties of the Jacobian incorporating the effects of water depths are discussed. The results provide a theoretical basis of wave action balance equations and ensure that the wave balance equations used in the SWAN or other numerical models are correct. It should be noted that the Jacobian is omitted in the wave action balance equations which are identical to a conventional action balance equation.
An Installation System of Deepwater Risers by An S-Lay Vessel
DUAN Meng-lan, WANG Yi, Segen ESTEFEN, HE Ning, LI Li-na, CHEN Bang-min
2011, (1): 139-148.
Along with the consumption increase of the petroleum products, more countries have transferred their attentions to the offshore fields, especially the deepwater oil and gas reserves. For deepwater exploitation, the risers must be installed to act as the conduits connecting surface platforms to subsea facilities. In this paper, the typical risers sorted by different classes are introduced, and the correspondent installation methods are presented. By investigating the recent projects performed in the deepwater hot spots, and combining the challenges of HYSY201 for riser installation, a lifting device developed for assisting riser installation is proposed and detailed to satisfy the installation of deepwater risers in the LW3-1 Gas Field of in the South China Sea. Tests on both the functions and performances of such a new system exhibit the satisfaction of meeting all challenging requirements of HYSY201 for application to riser installation in waters up to a depth of in the South China Sea.
Experimental Research on the Marine Hydrodynamic Action on the Consolidation Process of the Sediments in the Yellow River Estuary
YANG Xiu-juan, JIA Yong-gang, LI Xiang-ran, SHAN Hong-xian
2011, (1): 149-157.
Based on the in-situ measurements, the impact of the marine hydrodynamics, such as wave and tide, in the rapidly deposited sediments consolidation process was studied. In the tide flat of Diaokou delta-lobe, one test pit was excavated. The seabed soils were dug and dehydrated, and then the powder of the soil was mixed with seawater to be fluid sediments. And an iron plate covered part of the test pit to cut off the effect of the marine hydrodynamics. By field-testing methods, like static cone penetration test (SPT) and vane shear test (VST), the variation of strength is measured as a function of time, and the marine hydrodynamics impact on the consolidation process of the sediments in the Yellow River estuary was studied. It is shown that the self-consolidated sediments’ strength linearly increases with the depth. In the consolidation process, in the initial, marine hydrodynamics play a decisive role, about 1.5 times as much as self-consolidated in raising the strength of the sea-bed soils, and with the extension of the depth the role of the hydrodynamics is reduced. In the continuation of the consolidation process, the trend of the surface sediments increased-strength gradually slows down under the water dynamics, while the sediments below are in opposite ways. As a result, the rapidly deposited silt presents a nonuniform consolidation state, and the crust gradually forms. The results have been referenced in studying the role of the hydrodynamics in the soil consolidation process.
Development of A Deep Ocean Electric Autonomous Manipulator
XIAO Zhi-hu, XU Guo-hua, PENG Fu-yuan, TANG Guo-yuan, SHEN Xiong, YANG Bo
2011, (1): 159-168.
This paper describes an underwater 3500 m electric manipulator (named Huahai-4E, stands for four functions deep ocean electric manipulator in China), which has been developed at underwater manipulation technology lab in Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST) for a test bed of studying of deep ocean manipulation technologies. The manipulator features modular integration joints, and layered architecture control system. The oil-filled, pressure-compensated joint is compactly designed and integrated of a permanent magnet (PM) brushless motor, a drive circuit, a harmonic gear and an angular feedback potentiometer. The underwater control system is based on a network and consisted of three embedded PC/104 computers which are used for servo control, task plan and target sensor respectively. They communicate through User Datagram Protocol (UDP) multicast communication in Vxworks OS. A supervisor PC with a virtual 3D GUI is fiber linked to underwater control system. Furthermore, the manipulator is equipped with a sensor system including a unique ultra-sonic probe array and an underwater camera. Autonomous grasp strategy based multi-sensor is studied. The results of watertight test in 40 MPa, joint’s efficiency test and autonomous grasp experiments in tank are also presented.
Numerical Study of Air Chamber for Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Convertor
LIU Zhen, HYUN Beom-Soo, HONG Keyyong
2011, (1): 169-178.
Oscillating Water Column (OWC) wave energy converting system is one of the most widely used facilities all over the world. The air chamber is utilized to convert the wave energy into the pneumatic energy. The numerical wave tank based on the two-phase VOF model is established in the present study to investigate the operating performance of OWC air chamber. The RANS equations, standard k-ε turbulence model and dynamic mesh technology are employed in the numerical model. The effects of incident wave conditions and shape parameters on the wave energy converting efficiency are studied and the capability of the present numerical wave tank on the corresponding engineering application is validated.

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