ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2011 Vol.(2)

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A Seismic Design Method for Subsea Pipelines Against Earthquake Fault Movement
DUAN Meng-lan, MAO Dong-feng, YUE Zhi-yong, Segen Estefen, LI Zhi-gang
2011, (2): 179-188.
As there are no specific guidelines on design of subsea pipelines crossing active seismic faults, methods for land buried pipelines have been applied to. Taking the large seismic fault movement into account, this paper proposes improved methods for seismic designs of subsea pipelines by comprehensively investigating the real constraining of soil on the pipelines, the interaction processes of soil with the pipeline, the plastic slippage of the soil, and the elastic-plastic properties of the pipeline materials. New formulas are given to calculate the length of transition section and its total elongation. These formulas are more reasonable in mechanism, and more practical for seismic design of subsea pipelines crossing active faults
An Approximation to Energy Dissipation in Time Domain Simulation of Sloshing Waves Based on Linear Potential Theory
HUANG Shuo, DUAN Wen-yang, MA Qing-wei
2011, (2): 189-200.
This paper proposes a new approximation to energy dissipation in time domain simulation of sloshing waves by use of a linear potential theory. The boundary value problem is solved by the NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) higher-order panel method, in which a time-domain Green function is employed. The energy dissipation is modeled by changing the boundary condition on solid boundaries. Model experiments are carried out in a partially filled rectangular tank with forced horizontal motion. Sloshing-induced internal pressures and horizontal force obtained numerically and experimentally are compared with each other. It is observed that the present energy dissipation approximation can help produce a fair agreement between experimental forces and those of numerical simulations.
Wave Run-up on A Coaxial Perforated Circular Cylinder
ZHU Da-tong
2011, (2): 201-214.
This paper describes a plane regular wave interaction with a combined cylinder which consists of a solid inner column and a coaxial perforated outer cylinder. The outer perforated surface is a thin porous cylinder with an annular gap between it and the inner cylinder. The non-linear boundary condition at the perforated wall is a prime focus in the study; energy dissipation at the perforated wall occurs through the resistance to the fluid across the perforated wall. Explicit analytical formulae are presented to calculate the wave run-up on the outer and inner surfaces of the perforated cylinder and the surface of the inner column. The theoretical results of the wave run-up are compared with previous experimental data. Numerical results have also been obtained: when the ratio of the annular gap between the two cylinders to incident wavelength (b-a)/L≤0.1, the wave run-up on the inner surface of the perforated cylinder and the surface of inner column can partially or completely exceed the incident wave height.
Autopilot Control Synthesis for Path Tracking Maneuvers of Underwater Vehicles
Sam-Sang YOU, Hyeung-Sik CHOI, Hwan-Seong KIM, Han-Il PARK
2011, (2): 237-249.
This paper is concerned with the robust control synthesis of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) for general path following maneuvers. First, we present maneuvering kinematics and vehicle dynamics in a unified framework. Based on H∞ loop-shaping procedure, the 2-DOF autopilot controller has been presented to enhance stability and path tracking. By use of model reduction, the high-order control system is reduced to one with reasonable order, and further the scaled low-order controller has been analyzed in both the frequency and the time domains. Finally, it is shown that the autopilot control system provides robust performance and stability against prescribed levels of uncertainty.
Eco-Environmental Impact Assessment of Pre-Leisure Beach Nourishment on the Benthic Invertebrate Community at Anping Coast
Chun-Han SHIH, Yi-Yu KUO, Ta-Jen CHU, Wen-Chieh CHOU, Wei-Tse CHANG, Ying-Chou LEE
2011, (2): 245-236.
In recent years, owing to global warming and the rising sea levels, beach nourishment and groin building have been increasingly employed to protect coastal land from shoreline erosion. These actions may degrade beach habitats and reduce biomass and invertebrate density at sites where they were employed. We conducted an eco-environmental evaluation at the Anping artificial beach-nourishment project area. At this site, sand piles within a semi-enclosed spur groin have been enforced by use of eco-engineering concepts since 2003. Four sampling sites were monitored during the study period from July 2002 to September 2008. The environmental impact assessment and biological investigations that we conducted are presented here. The results from this study indicate that both biotic (number of species, number of individual organisms, and Shannon-Wiener diversity) and abiotic parameters (suspended solids, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, dissolved inorganic phosphorus, total phosphorus, total organic carbon, median diameter, and water content) showed significant differences before and after beach engineering construction. Biological conditions became worse in the beginning stages of the engineering but improved after the restoration work completion. This study reveals that the composition of benthic invertebrates changed over the study period, and two groups of organisms, Bivalvia and Gastropoda, seemed to be particularly suitable to this habitat after the semi-enclosed artificial structures completion.
Robust Control Based on Feedback Linearization for Roll Stabilizing of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Under Wave Disturbances
PAN Li-xin, JIN Hong-zhang, WANG Lin-lin
2011, (2): 251-263.
In the case of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) navigating with low speed near water surface, a new method for design of roll motion controller is proposed in order to restrain wave disturbance effectively and improve roll stabilizing performance. Robust control is applied, which is based on uncertain nonlinear horizontal motion model of AUV and the principle of zero speed fin stabilizer. Feedback linearization approach is used to transform the complex nonlinear system into a comparatively simple linear system. For parameter uncertainty of motion model, the controller is designed with mixed-sensitivity method based on H-infinity robust control theory. Simulation results show better robustness improved by this control method for roll stabilizing of AUV navigating near water surface
Experimental Investigation of the Decay from A Ship’s Propeller
W. Lam, G. A. Hamill, SONGYong-chen, D. J. Robinson, S. Raghunathan
2011, (2): 265-284.
In the present study, an experimental investigation of the decay of the maximum velocity and its turbulent characteristics behind a ship propeller, in “bollard pull” condition (zero speed of advance), is reported. Velocity measurements were performed in laboratory by use of a Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) measurement system. Earlier researchers described that the maximum axial velocity is constant at the initial stage of a ship’s propeller jet (Fuehrer and R?misch, 1977; Blaauw and van de Kaa, 1978; Berger et al., 1981; Verhey, 1983) as reported in a pure water jet (Albertson et al., 1950; Lee et al., 2002; Dai, 2005), but a number of researchers disagreed with the constant velocity assumption. The present study found that the maximum axial velocity decays in the zone of flow establishment and the zone of established flow with different rates. The investigation provides an insight into the decays of both the maximum velocity and the maximum turbulent fluctuation in axial, tangential and radial components and the decay of the maximum turbulent kinetic energy. Empirical equations are proposed to allow coastal engineers to estimate the jet characteristics from a ship’s propeller.
Transmitted and Reflected Coefficients for Horizontal or Vertical Plate Type Breakwater
WANG Ke, ZHANG Zhi-qiang, XU Wang
2011, (2): 285-294.
Surface or submerged horizontal or vertical plate can be considered as a new concept breakwater. This paper investigates the wave-plate interaction of this type of breakwater by use of the boundary element method. The relationships of wave transmitted and reflected among plate thickness, submergence and length are carefully studied by numerical simulation. It is shown that: (1) The transmitted coefficients of submerged horizontal plate or vertical plate will become larger with the increase of plate thickness and reduce rapidly with the decrease of plate submergence. (2) Both surface horizontal and vertical plate are efficient for intermediate and short wave elimination, but vertical plate is more effective. (3) Submerged horizontal plate can act more effectively than submerged vertical plate does. With all wave frequencies, the vertical plate almost has no wave elimination effect.
Pit Bearing Capacity Effect on Status of Soil Plug During Pile Driving in Ocean Engineering
YAN Shu-wang, ZHOU Qun-hua, LIU Run, DONG Wei
2011, (2): 295-304.
Foundation piles of the offshore oil platforms in the Bohai Bay are usually longer than 100 m with a diameter larger than 2 m. Driving such long and large-sized piles into the ground is a difficult task. It needs a comprehensive consider ation of the pile dimensions, soil properties and the hammer energy. Thoughtful drivability analysis has to be performed in the design stage. It has been shown that judging whether the soil column inside the pile is fully plugged, which makes the pile behave as close-ended, strongly influences the accuracy of drivability analysis. Engineering practice repeatedly indicates that the current methods widely used for soil plug judgment often give incorrect results, leading the designers to make a wrong decision. It has been found that this problem is caused by the ignorance of the bearing capacity provided by the soil surrounding the pile. Based on the Terzaghi’s bearing capacity calculation method for deep foundation, a new approach for judging soil plug status is put forward, in which the surcharge effect has been considered and the dynamic effect coefficient is included. This approach has been applied to some practical engineering projects successfully, which may give more reasonable results than the currently used method does.
Probabilistic Lifetime Assessment of Marine Reinforced Concrete with Steel Corrosion and Cover Cracking
LU Chun-hua, JIN Wei-liang, LIU Rong-gui
2011, (2): 305-318.
In order to study the durability behavior of marine reinforced concrete structure suffering from chloride attack, the structural service life is assumed to be divided into three critical stages, which can be characterized by steel corrosion and cover cracking. For each stage, a calculated model used to predict the lifetime is developed. Based on the definition of durability limit state, a probabilistic lifetime model and its time-dependent reliability analytical method are proposed considering the random natures of influencing factors. Then, the probabilistic lifetime prediction models are applied to a bridge pier located in the Hangzhou Bay with Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that the time to corrosion initiation t0 follows a lognormal distribution, while that the time from corrosion initiation to cover cracking t1 and the time for crack to develop from hairline crack to a limit crack width t2 can be described by Weibull distributions. With the permitted failure probability of 5.0%, it is also observed that the structural durability lifetime mainly depends on the durability life t0 and that the percentage of participation of the life t0 to the total service life grows from 61.5% to 83.6% when the cover thickness increases from 40 mm to 80 mm. Therefore, for any part of the marine RC bridge, the lifetime predictions and maintenance efforts should also be directed toward controlling the stage of corrosion initiation induced by chloride ion.
Dynamic Stress Analysis of the Leg Joints of Self-Elevating Platform
HUANG Zhao-yu, TANG Wen-yong, WANG Yi, WANG Wen-tao
2011, (2): 319-326.
Since a self-elevating platform often works in water for a long time, the lattice leg is largely influenced by wave and current. The amplitude of leg joint stresses is a very important factor for the fatigue life of the platform. However, there are not many researches having been done on the mechanism and dynamic stress analysis of these leg joints. This paper focuses on the dynamic stress analysis and suppression methods of the leg joints of self-elevating platforms. Firstly, the dynamic stresses of the lattice leg joints are analyzed for a self-elevating platform by use of the 5th-order Stokes wave theory. Secondly, the axial and bending stresses are studied due to their large contributions to total stresses. And then, different joint types are considered and the leg-hull interface stiffness is analyzed for the improvement of the joint dynamic stress amplitude. Finally, some useful conclusions are drawn for the optimization design of the self-elevating platform
A New Hybrid Vertical Coordinate Ocean Model and Its Application in the Simulation of the Changjiang Diluted Water
ZHANG Wen-jing, ZHU Shou-xian, DONG Li-xian, ZHANG Chang-kuan
2011, (2): 327-338.
Based on the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of some vertical coordinates applied in the calculation of the Changjiang diluted water (CDW), a new hybrid vertical coordinate is designed, which uses σ coordinate for current and σ-z coordinate for salinity. To combine the current and salinity, the Eulerian-Lagrangian method is used for the salinity calculation, and the baroclinic pressure gradient (BPG) is calculated on the salinity sited layers. The new hybrid vertical coordinate is introduced to the widely used model of POM (Princeton Ocean Model) to make a new model of POM-σ-z. The BPG calculations of an ideal case show that POM-σ-z model brings smaller error than POM model does. The simulations of CDW also show that POM-σ-z model is better than POM model on simulating the salinity and its front
A Hydraulic Hammer Corer Utilizing Hydrostatic Energy for Hard Seafloor Sediment Coring
WANG Jian-jun, QIN Hua-wei, CHEN Ying, WEI Shuang-feng
2011, (2): 339-348.
The paper presents the design and preliminary test results of a corer used for hard seafloor sediments sampling. Generally the sediment cores are provided by either gravity-type coring or deep-ocean drilling for a range of studies. However, in consideration of the operability and available sample length in collecting hard sediments, these methods exhibit no advantages. In this paper, a new corer which can exploit both hydrostatic energy and gravity energy for hard sediments coring is presented. The hydrostatic energy is provided by pressure differential between ambient seawater pressure and air pressure in an empty cavity. During sampling process, the corer penetrates into the sediment like a gravity corer and then automatically shifts to the percussion mode. The experiments in the laboratory indicate that the corer can complete 40 cycles in the sea with a cycle time of 2.8 seconds in percussion mode and impact the sample tube with the velocity of 0.2 m/s during each cycle. Besides, its adjustable falling velocity can make the corer achieve the maximum efficiency in coring different sediments
Parametric Vibration of Submerged Floating Tunnel Tether Under Random Excitation
SUN Sheng-nan, SU Zhi-bin
2011, (2): 349-356.
For the study of the parametric vibration response of submerged floating tunnel tether under random excitation, a nonlinear random parametric vibration equation of coupled tether and tube of submerged floating tunnel is set up. Subsequently, vibration response of tether in the tether-tube system is analyzed by Monte Carlo method. It may be concluded that when the tube is subjected to zero-mean Gaussian white noise random excitation, the displacement and velocity root mean square responses of tether reach the peak if the circular frequency of tube doubles that of tether; the displacement and velocity root mean square responses of tether increase as the random excitation root mean square increases; owing to the damping force of water, the displacement and velocity root mean square responses of tether decrease rapidly compared with tether in air; increasing the damping of the tether or tube reduces the displacement and velocity root mean square responses of tether; the large-amplitude vibration of tether may be avoided by locating dampers on the tether or tube
An Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm with Harmony Strategy for the Location of Critical Slip Surface of Slopes
LI Liang, CHU Xue-song
2011, (2): 357-364.
The determination of optimal values for three parameters required in the original particle swarm optimization algorithm is very difficult. It is proposed that two new parameters simulating the harmony search strategy can be adopted instead of the three parameters which are required in the original particle swarm optimization algorithm to update the positions of all the particles. The improved particle swarm optimization is used in the location of the critical slip surface of soil slope, and it is found that the improved particle swarm optimization algorithm is insensitive to the two parameters while the original particle swarm optimization algorithm can be sensitive to its three parameters.

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