ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2011 Vol.(3)

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Study on Characteristics of 3-D Translating-Pulsating Source Green Function of Deep-Water Havelock Form and Its Fast Integration Method
XU Yong, DONG Wen-cai
2011, (3): 365-380.
The singularities, oscillatory performances and the contributing factors to the 3-D translating-pulsating source Green function of deep-water Havelock form which consists of a local disturbance part and a far-field wave-like part, are analyzed systematically. Relative numerical integral methods about the two parts are presented in this paper. An improved method based on LOBATTO rule is used to eliminate singularities caused respectively by infinite discontinuity and jump discontinuous node from the local disturbance part function, which makes the improvement of calculation efficiency and accuracy possible. And variable substitution is applied to remove the singularity existing at the end of the integral interval of the far-field wave-like part function. Two auxiliary techniques such as valid interval calculation and local refinement of integral steps technique in narrow zones near false singularities are applied so as to avoid unnecessary integration of invalid interval and improve integral accordance. Numerical test results have proved the efficiency and accuracy in these integral methods that thus can be applied to calculate hydrodynamic performance of floating structures moving in waves.
Influence of Cavity Shape on Hydrodynamic Noise by A Hybrid LES-FW-H Method
WANG Yu, WANG Shu-xin, LIU Yu-hong, CHEN Chao-ying
2011, (3): 381-394.
The flow past various mechanical cavity, which is a common structure on the surface of the underwater vehicle, and generating hydrodynamic noise has attracted considerable attention in recent years. In this paper, a hybrid method is presented to investigate the hydrodynamic noise induced by mechanical cavities with various shapes. With this method, the noise sources in the near wall turbulences or in the wake are computed by the large eddy simulation (LES) and the generation and propagation of the acoustic waves are solved by the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) acoustic analogy method with acoustic source terms extracted from the time-dependent solutions of the unsteady flow. The feasibility and reliability of the current method was verified by comparing with experimental data (Wang, 2009). The 2D cavity models with different cross-section shapes and 3D cavity models with different cavity mouth shapes (rectangular and circular) are developed to study the influence of cavity shape on the hydrodynamic noise. By comparing the flow mechanisms, wall pressure fluctuations, near-field and far-field sound propagation distributions, it is found that the quadrangular cavity with equal depths of leading-edge and trailing-edge is preferred for its inducing lower hydrodynamic noise than the cylindrical cavity does.
Comparison of Turbulence Schemes for Prediction of Wave-Induced Near-Bed Sediment Suspension Above A Plane Bed
ZHANG Chi, ZHENG Jin-hai, WANG Yi-gang, ZHANG Meng-tao, JENG Dong-sheng, ZHANG Ji-sheng
2011, (3): 395-412.
Based on a wave bottom boundary layer model and a sediment advection-diffusion model, seven turbulence schemes are compared regarding their performances in prediction of near-bed sediment suspension beneath waves above a plane bed. These turbulence algorithms include six empirical eddy viscosity schemes and one standard two-equation k-ε model. In particular, different combinations of typical empirical formulas for the eddy viscosity profile and for the wave friction factor are examined. Numerical results are compared with four laboratory data sets, consisting of one wave boundary layer hydrodynamics experiment and three sediment suspension experiments under linear waves and the Stokes second-order waves. It is shown that predictions of near-bed sediment suspension are very sensitive to the choices of the empirical formulas in turbulence schemes. Simple empirical turbulence schemes are possible to perform equally well as the two-equation k-ε model. Among the empirical schemes, the turbulence scheme, combining the exponential formula for eddy viscosity and Swart formula for wave friction factor, is the most accurate. It maintains the simplicity and yields identically good predictions as the k-ε model does in terms of the wave-averaged sediment concentration
Fatigue Analysis of the Taut-Wire Mooring System Applied for Deep Waters
HUANG Wei, LIU Hai-xiao, SHAN Gui-min, HU Cun
2011, (3): 413-426.
Precisely predicting the fatigue life of taut-wire mooring systems has become an interesting and important problem for scientists and engineers since there are still difficulties in the inspection and maintenance of mooring lines in a rough sea environment especially in deep waters. In this paper, a comprehensive fatigue analysis is performed for a polyester taut-wire mooring system of an FPSO based on the time domain dynamic theory, rainflow cycle counting method and linear damage accumulation rule of Palmgren-Miner. Three influential factors in the fatigue analysis including the pre-tension, dynamic stiffness and T-N curve are investigated in detail. Two polyester T-N curves, one is from the DNV- OS-E301 and the other is from the API-RP-2SM, are adopted in the calculation. The fatigue analysis of the mooring system after one-line failure is also carried out. The calculation results indicate that the fatigue life is significantly affected by the T-N curve. The fatigue life decreases with increasing pre-tension, and is largely reduced if taking into account the dynamic stiffness caused by cyclic loading. The analysis also proves that one-line failure has remarkable effects on the fatigue lives of other mooring lines. The present parametric and comparative study is believed to be meaningful to further understanding of the taut-wire mooring system for deepwater applications
Study on A New Mooring System Integrating Catenary with Taut Mooring
JI Chun-yan, YUAN Zhi-ming, CHEN Ming-lu
2011, (3): 427-440.
Analyzed are the merits and demerits of catenary mooring system and taut mooring system, which are commonly used nowadays. As falling somewhere between these two systems, a new mooring system integrating catenary with taut mooring is proposed. In order to expound and prove the advantages of this new system, the motion performance of a semi-submersible platform is simulated by employing full time domain coupled analysis method. A comparison of the result of new mooring system with that of taut mooring system shows that the movement of the platform using the new type mooring system is smaller than that using the taut mooring system, which ensures a better working condition. Furthermore, the new mooring system is also compatible with the characteristics of catenary mooring system, which eliminates the requirement of anti-uplift capacity of the anchors
A 3-D Time-Domain Coupled Model for Nonlinear Waves Acting on A Box-Shaped Ship Fixed in A Harbor
WANG Da-guo, ZOU Zhi-li, THAM Leslie George
2011, (3): 441-456.
A 3-D time-domain numerical coupled model is developed to obtain an efficient method for nonlinear waves acting on a box-shaped ship fixed in a harbor. The domain is divided into the inner domain and the outer domain. The inner domain is the area beneath the ship and the flow is described by the simplified Euler equations. The remaining area is the outer domain and the flow is defined by the higher-order Boussinesq equations in order to consider the nonlinearity of the wave motions. Along the interface boundaries between the inner domain and the outer domain, the volume flux is assumed to be continuous and the wave pressures are equal. Relevant physical experiment is conducted to validate the present model and it is shown that the numerical results agree with the experimental data. Compared the coupled model with the flow in the inner domain governed by the Laplace equation, the present coupled model is more efficient and its solution procedure is simpler, which is particularly useful for the study on the effect of the nonlinear waves acting on a fixed box-shaped ship in a large harbor.
Numerical Simulation of Wave-Induced Currents Combined with Parabolic Mild-Slope Equation in Curvilinear Coordinates
CUI Lei, TONG Fei-fei, SHI Feng
2011, (3): 457-468.
Researches on breaking-induced currents by waves are summarized firstly in this paper. Then, a combined numerical model in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates is presented to simulate wave-induced current in areas with curved boundary or irregular coastline. The proposed wave-induced current model includes a nearshore current module established through orthogonal curvilinear transformation form of shallow water equations and a wave module based on the curvilinear parabolic approximation wave equation. The wave module actually serves as the driving force to provide the current module with required radiation stresses. The Crank-Nicolson finite difference scheme and the alternating directions implicit method are used to solve the wave and current module, respectively. The established surf zone currents model is validated by two numerical experiments about longshore currents and rip currents in basins with rip channel and breakwater. The numerical results are compared with the measured data and published numerical results.
Experimental Researches on Reflective and Transmitting Performances of Quarter Circular Breakwater Under Regular and Irregular Waves
SHI Yan-jiao, WU Mi-ling, JIANG Xue-lian, LI Yan-bao
2011, (3): 469-478.
A series of regular and irregular wave experiments are conducted to study the reflective and transmitting performances of quarter circular breakwater (QCB) in comparison with those of semi-circular breakwater (SCB). Based on regular wave tests, the reflection and transmission characteristics of QCB are analyzed and a few influencing factors are investigated. Then, the wave energy dissipation as wave passing over the breakwater is discussed based on the hydraulic coefficients of QCB and SCB. In irregular wave experiments, the reflection coefficients of QCB and their spectrums are studied. Finally, the comparisons between the experimental results and numerical simulations for QCB under regular and irregular wave conditions are presented
Dispersal and Fate of Dredged Materials Disposed of in the Changjiang Estuary Determined by Use of An in Situ Rare Earth Element Tracer
LIU Gao-feng, WU Hua-lin, GUO Wen-hua, ZHU Jian-rong, SUN Lian-cheng
2011, (3): 495-506.
To investigate the dispersal pattern and the fate of dredged materials disposed at a pre-selected disposal site, a field tracer experiment was conducted in the North Passage of the Changjiang Estuary during the 2005 flood season. Three tons of dredged materials were mixed with 2.792 kg of sodium hexachloroiridate (IV) hexahydrate (SHH), which contained the rare earth element tracer iridum (Ir). Sampling was conducted at pre-selected sections of the estuary on the second, third and fourth day after the release of dredged materials. All samples were evaluated by use of neutron activation analysis. The majority of the dredged material was dispersed nearly parallel to the navigation channel and deposited between the channel and the south dike. Only a small quantity of dredged materials entered or crossed the navigation channel, and the back silting ratio in the navigation channel was about 5%. The dredged materials also dispersed southeasterly beyond two dike heads.
Model Test Based Soil Spring Model and Application in Pipeline Thermal Buckling Analysis
GAO Xi-feng, LIU Run, YAN Shu-wang
2011, (3): 507-518.
The buckling of submarine pipelines may occur due to the action of axial soil frictional force caused by relative movement of soil and pipeline, which is induced by the thermal and internal pressure. The likelihood of occurrence of this buckling phenomenon is largely determined by soil resistance. A series of large-scale model tests were carried out to facilitate the establishment of substantial data base for a variety of burial pipeline relationships. Based on the test data, nonlinear soil spring can be adopted to simulate the soil behavior during the pipeline movement. For uplift resistance, an ideal elasticity plasticity model is recommended in the case of H/D (depth-to-diameter ratio)>5 and an elasticity softened model is recommended in the case of H/D≤5. The soil resistance along the pipeline axial direction can be simulated by an ideal elasticity plasticity model. The numerical analyzing results show that the capacity of pipeline against thermal buckling decreases with its initial imperfection enlargement and increases with the burial depth enhancement.
Configuration Analysis of Deepwater S-Lay Pipeline
GONG Shun-feng, CHEN Kai, CHEN Yuan, JIN Wei-liang, LI Zhi-gang, ZHAO Dong-yan
2011, (3): 519-530.
The safety of offshore pipeline has drawn a great deal of attention during deepwater installation due to the combined actions of high external pressure, axial tension, and bending moment. Meanwhile, the pipeline configuration has a remarkable effect on the structural behaviour of the tube. The special studies focus on the deepwater S-lay technique in the present paper. The stiffened catenary theory is applied to establish the static equilibrium governing differential equation of a pipe element, and the solution equations of the total pipeline configuration from a lay-barge over a stinger to the seabed are derived. The numerical iteration method for solving pipeline configuration is described in detail, and the corresponding program is developed to conduct the analysis of effects of various parameters such as laying water depth, pipe diameter, thickness of concrete weighted coating layer, stinger length, control strain, and axial tension on pipeline configuration. The results show that the laying water depth, the submerged weight of the pipe, and the axial tension are the critical factors influencing pipeline configuration. In addition, geometrical parameters of the stinger such as length, radius, and shape have an important effect on the pipe-laying capacity of the vessel. The validity of the program is further verified by means of a comparison with results obtained from the commercial finite element software OFFPIPE.
Prediction of Non-Cavitation Propeller Noise in Time Domain
YE Jin-ming, XIONG Ying, XIAO Chang-run, BI Yi
2011, (3): 531-538.
The blade frequency noise of non-cavitation propeller in a uniform flow is analyzed in time domain. The unsteady loading (dipole source) on the blade surface is calculated by a potential-based surface panel method. Then the time- dependent pressure data is used as the input for Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings formulation to predict the acoustics pressure. The integration of noise source is performed over the true blade surface rather than the nothickness blade surface, and the effect of hub can be considered. The noise characteristics of the non-cavitation propeller and the numerical discretization forms are discussed.
ZHU Zhi-feng, FANG Shi-liang, WANG Xiao-yan, MENG Zhao-wen, LIU Ping-xiang, DU Xuan-min
2011, (3): 539-548.
In the present study, cavitation and a ship propeller wake are reported by computed fluid dynamics based on viscous multiphase flow theory. Some recent validation results with a hybrid grid based on unsteady Navier-Stokes (N-S) and bubble dynamics equations are presented to predict velocity, pressure and vapor volume fraction in propeller wake in a uniform inflow. Numerical predictions of sheet cavitation, tip vortex cavitation and hub vortex cavitation are in agreement with the experimental data, same as numerical predictions of longitudinal and transversal evolution of the axial velocity. Blade and shaft rate frequency of propeller is well predicted by the computed results of pressure, and tip vortex is the most important to generate the pressure field within the near wake. The overall results indicate that the present approach is reliable for prediction of cavitation and propeller wake on the condition of uniform inflow

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