ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2012 Vol.(2)

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A Numerical Model for Ultimate Soil Resistance to An Untrenched Pipeline Under Ocean Currents
GAO Fu-ping, HAN Xi-ting, YAN Shu-ming
2012, (2): 185-194.
One of the main concerns for pipeline on-bottom stability design is to properly predict ultimate soil resistance in severe ocean environments. A plane-strain finite element model is proposed to investigate the ultimate soil resistance to the partially-embedded pipeline under the action of ocean currents. Two typical end-constraints of the submarine pipelines are examined, i.e. freely-laid pipes and anti-rolling pipes. The proposed numerical model is verified with the existing mechanical-actuator experiments. The magnitude of lateral-soil-resistance coefficient for the examined anti-rolling pipes is much larger than that for the freely-laid pipes, indicating that the end-constraint condition significantly affects the lateral stability of the untrenched pipeline under ocean currents. The parametric study indicates that, the variation of lateral-soil-resistance coefficient with the dimensionless submerged weight of pipe is affected greatly by the angle of internal friction of soil, the pipe-soil friction coefficient, etc.
Approximate Calculation of Oblique Wave Transmission from A Single-Row of Rectangular Piles
ZHU Da-tong
2012, (2): 195-204.
Transmissions of oblique incident wave from a row of rectangular piles are analyzed theoretically. The incident angle of plane wave is taken as ?=90° , there then is the transmission coefficient |T|=1(This is a paradox). In this paper, by means of the approximate relation between the transmitted and incident wave angle found from the shape of a slit, the paradoxical phenomenon is removed. On the basis of the continuality of the pressure and flux and the analysis of flow resistance at the row of rectangular piles, formulas of reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained. The transmission and reflection coefficients predicted by the present model quite agree with those of laboratory experiments in previous references
A Method to Determine the Incident Wave Boundary Conditions and Its Application
RAO Yong-hong, LIANG Shu-xiu, YU Yu-xiu
2012, (2): 205-216.
When studying the harbor water tranquility, cases are often confronted as that the verification point is not located on the generation line or that the angle between the generation line and the isobath is so large that the differences of the wave climates along the generation line can not be ignored. For these cases, the incident boundary conditions are difficult to evaluate. In order to solve this problem, a combined wave model is developed in the present paper based on the Boussinesq equation and the wave action balance equation. Instead of the one-line wave generation method, a multi-line generation method is proposed for the combined model. Application of this method is given to a case that the harbor is designed with two entrances and the angle between the generation line and the isobath is large and the results are shown reasonable. We suggest that the wave generation method on multi-lines might also be introduced to the wave physical model as the replacement for the one-line generation method.
Short-Crested Waves Interaction with A Concentric Porous Cylinder System with Partially Porous Outer Cylinder
LIU Jun, LIN Gao, LI Jian-bo
2012, (2): 217-234.
In this paper, based on the linear wave theory, the interaction of short-crested waves with a concentric dual cylindrical system with a partially porous outer cylinder is studied by using the scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM), which is a novel semi-analytical method with the advantages of combining the finite element method (FEM) with the boundary element method (BEM). The whole solution domain is divided into one unbounded sub-domain and one bounded sub-domain by the exterior cylinder. By weakening the governing differential equation in the circumferential direction, the SBFEM equations for both domains can be solved analytically in the radial direction. Only the boundary on the circumference of the exterior porous cylinder is discretized with curved surface finite elements. Meanwhile, by introducing a variable porous-effect parameter G, non-homogeneous materials caused by the complex configuration of the exterior cylinder are modeled without additional efforts. Comparisons clearly demonstrate the excellent accuracy and computational efficiency associated with the present SBFEM. The effects of the wide range wave parameters and the structure configuration are examined. This parametric study will help determine the various hydrodynamic effects of the concentric porous cylindrical structure.
Numerical Study of A Round Buoyant Jet Under the Effect of JONSWAP Random Waves
CHEN Yong-ping, LI Chi-wai, ZHANG Chang-kuan, XU Zhen-shan
2012, (2): 235-250.
This paper presents a numerical study on the hydrodynamic behaviours of a round buoyant jet under the effect of JONSWAP random waves. A three-dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) model is developed to simulate the buoyant jet in a stagnant ambient and JONSWAP random waves. By comparison of velocity and concentration fields, it is found that the buoyant jet exhibits faster decay of centerline velocity, wider lateral spreading and larger initial dilution under the wave effect, indicating that wave dynamics improves the jet entrainment and mixing in the near field, and subsequently mitigate the jet impacts in the far field. The effect of buoyancy force on the jet behaviours in the random waves is also numerically investigated. The results show that the wave effect on the jet entrainment and mixing is considerably weakened under the existence of buoyancy force, resulting in a slower decay rate of centerline velocity and a narrower jet width for the jet with initial buoyancy.
A New Method for Determining Threshold in Using PGCEVD to Calculate Return Values of Typhoon Wave Height
LUO Yao, ZHU Liang-sheng, HU Jin-peng
2012, (2): 251-260.
In using the PGCEVD (Poisson-Gumbel Compound Extreme Value Distribution) model to calculate return values of typhoon wave height, the quantitative selection of the threshold has blocked its application. By analyzing the principle of the threshold selection of PGCEVD model and in combination of the change point statistical methods, this paper proposes a new method for quantitative calculation of the threshold in PGCEVD model. Eleven samples from five engineering points in several coastal waters of Guangdong and Hainan, China, are calculated and analyzed by using PGCEVD model and the traditional Pearson type III distribution (P-Ⅲ) model, respectively. By comparing the results of the two models, it is shown that the new method of selecting the optimal threshold is feasible. PGCEVD model has more stable results than that of P-Ⅲ model and can be used for the return wave height in every direction.
Mooring Tension and Motion Characteristics of A Submerged Fish Reef with Net in Waves and Currents Using Numerical Analysis
Tae Ho Kim, David W. Fredriksson, Judson DeCew
2012, (2): 261-276.
A numerical model was used to analyze the motion response and mooring tension of a submerged fish reef system. The system included a net attached to a rigid structure suspended up from the bottom with a single, high tension mooring by fixed flotation. The analysis was performed by using a Morison equation type finite element model configured with truss elements. Input forcing parameters into the model consisted of both regular and irregular waves, with and without a steady current. Heave, surge and pitch dynamic calculations of the reef structure were made. Tension response results of the attached mooring line were also computed. Results were analyzed in both the time and frequency domain in which appropriate, linear transfer functions were calculated. The influence of the current was more evident in the tension and heave motion response data. This is most likely the result of the large buoyancy characteristics of the reef structure and the length of the mooring cable. Maximum mooring component tension was found to be 13.9 kN and occurred when the reef was subjected to irregular waves with a co-linear current of 1.0 m/s velocity. The results also showed that the system had little damping (in heave) with damped natural periods of 2.8 s. This combination of system characteristics promotes a possible resonating situation in typical open sea conditions with similar wave periods.
A Coastal Ocean Model of Semi-Implicit Finite Volume Unstructured Grid
GENG Yan-fen, WANG Zhi-li
2012, (2): 277-290.
A two-dimensional coastal ocean model based on unstructured C-grid is built, in which the momentum equation is discretized on the faces of each cell, and the continuity equation is discretized on the cell. The model is discretized by semi-implicit finite volume method, in that the free surface is semi-implicit and the bottom friction is implicit, thereby removing stability limitations associated with the surface gravity wave and friction. The remaining terms in the momentum equations are discretized explicitly by integral finite volume method and second-order Adams-Bashforth method. Tidal flow in the polar quadrant with known analytic solution is employed to test the proposed model. Finally, the performance of the present model to simulate tidal flow in a geometrically complex domain is examined by simulation of tidal currents in the Pearl River Estuary.
Numerical Simulation for Hydrodynamic Characteristics of A Bionic Flapping Hydrofoil
SU Yu-min, WANG Zhao-li, ZHANG Xi, GUO Bing-jie
2012, (2): 291-304.
In order to study the propulsion mechanism of bionic flapping hydrofoil (BFH), a 2-DoF (heave and pitch) motion model is formulated. The hydrodynamic performance of BFH with a series kinematical parameters is explored via numerical simulation based on FLUENT. The calculated result is compared with experimental value of MIT and that by the panel method. Moreover, the effect of inlet velocity, the angle of attack, the heave amplitude, the pitch amplitude, the phase difference, the heave biased angle, the pitch biased angle and the oscillating frequency are investigated. The study is useful for guiding the design of bionic underwater vehicle based on flapping propulsion. It is indicated that the optimal parameters combination is ν=0.5m/s, ?0=40°, θ0=30°,ψ=90°, ?bias=40°, θbias=30° and f=0.5Hz.
Wave Diffraction on Arc-Shaped Floating Perforated Breakwaters
DUAN Jin-hui, CHENG Jian-sheng, WANG Jian-ping, WANG Jing-quan
2012, (2): 305-316.
An analytical method is developed to study the sheltering effects on arc-shaped floating perforated breakwaters. In the process of analysis, the floating breakwater is assumed to be rigid, thin, vertical, and immovable and located in water with constant depth. The fluid domain is divided into two regions by imaginary interface. The velocity potential in each region is expanded by eigenfunction in the context of linear theory. By satisfying continuity of pressure and normal velocity across the imaginary fluid interface, a set of linear algebraic equations can be obtained to determine the unknown coefficients for eigenfunction expansions. The accuracy of the present model was verified by a comparison with existing results for the case of arc-shaped floating breakwater. Numerical results, in the form of contour maps of the non-dimensional wave amplitude around the breakwater and diffracted wave amplitude at typical sections, are presented for a range of wave and breakwater parameters. Results show that the sheltering effects on the arc-shaped floating perforated breakwater are closely related to the incident wavelength, the draft and the porosity of the breakwater.
Measurement of Fluid Flow in Pipe and Porous Media by High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging
JIANG Lan-lan, SONG Yong-chen, LIU Yu, DOU Bin-lin, ZHU Ning-jun, ZHAO Jia-fei, BULITI Abudula
2012, (2): 317-328.
The objective of this study is to understand the process of fluid flow in pipe and porous media with different pore structures. High-resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique was used to visualize the pore structure and measure fluid flow. The porous media was formed by packed bed of glass beads. Flow measurement was carried out by a modified spin echo sequence. The results show that the velocity distribution in pipe is annular and the linear relation between MRI velocity and actual velocity is found in pipe flow measurement. The flow distribution in porous media is rather heterogeneous, and it is consistent with heterogeneous pore structure. The flow through pores with the high volume flow rate is determined largely by geometrical effects such as pore size and cross-sectional area.
Research on Hydrodynamics Model Test for Deepsea Open-Framed Remotely Operated Vehicle
FAN Shi-bo, LIAN Lian, REN Ping
2012, (2): 329-339.
This paper presents the features of newly designed hydrodynamics test for the scaled model of 4500 m deepsea open-framed remotely operated vehicle (ROV), which is being researched and developed by Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Accurate hydrodynamics coefficients measurement and spatial modeling of ROV are significant for the maneuverability and control algorithm. The scaled model of ROV was constructed by 1:1.6. Hydrodynamics coefficients were measured through VPMM and LAHPMM towing test. And dynamics model was derived as a set of equations, describing nonlinear and coupled 5-DOF spatial motions. Rotation control motion was simulated to verify spatial model proposed. Research and application of hydrodynamics coefficients are expected to enable ROV to overcome uncertainty and disturbances of deepsea environment, and accomplish some more challengeable and practical missions.
Wave Characteristics and Extreme Parameters in the Bohai Sea
WANG Zhi-feng, WU Ke-jian, ZHOU Liang-ming, WU Lun-yu
2012, (2): 341-350.
This paper is aimed at the whole Bohai Sea, as the complement and improvement of wave characteristics and extreme parameters. Wave fields were simulated in the Bohai Sea by using wave model SWAN from 1985 to 2004. The input data based on the hindcast of high-resolution wind fields from RAMS and water level fields from POM, which have been tested and verified well. Comparisons of significant wave heights between simulation and station observations show a good agreement in general. By statistical analysis, the wave characteristics such as significant wave heights, dominant wave directions and their seasonal variations are discussed. In addition, main wave extreme parameters and directional extreme values particularly for 100-year return period are investigated.
Modeling Residual Circulation and Stratification in Oujiang River Estuary
LIN Wei-bo, WANG Yi-gang, RUAN Xiao-hong, XU Qun
2012, (2): 351-362.
A 3D, time-dependent, baroclinic, hydrodynamic and salinity model was implemented and applied to the Oujiang River estuarine system in the East China Sea. The model was driven by the forcing of tidal elevations along the open boundaries and freshwater inflows from the Oujiang River. The bottom friction coefficient and vertical eddy viscosity were adjusted to complete model calibration and verification in simulations. It is demonstrated that the model is capable of reproducing observed temporal variability in the water surface elevation and longitudinal velocity, presenting skill coefficient higher than 0.82. This model was then used to investigate the influence of freshwater discharge on residual current and salinity intrusion under different freshwater inflow conditions in the Oujiang River estuary. The model results reveal that the river channel presents a two-layer structure with flood currents near the bottom and ebb currents at the top layer in the region of seawater influenced on north shore under high river flow condition. The river discharge is a major factor affecting the salinity stratification in the estuarine system. The water exchange is mainly driven by the tidal forcing at the estuary mouth, except under high river flow conditions when the freshwater extends its influence from the river’s head to its mouth.

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