ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2012 Vol.(3)

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Studies of TLP Dynamic Response Under Wind, Waves and Current
GU Jia-yang, YANG Jian-min, LV Hai-ning
2012, (3): 363-378.
Investigated is the coupled response of a tension leg platform (TLP) for random waves. Inferred are the mass matrix, coupling stiffness matrix, damping matrix in the vibration differential equation and external load of TLP in moving coordinating system. Infinitesimal method is applied to divide columns and pontoons into small parts. Time domain motion equation is solved by Runge-Kutta integration scheme. Jonswap spectrum is simulated in the random wave, current is simulated by linear interpolation, and NPD spectrum is applied as wind spectrum. The Monte Carlo method is used to simulate random waves and fluctuated wind. Coupling dynamic response, change of tendon tension and riser tension in different sea conditions are analyzed by power spectral density (PSD). The influence of approach angle on dynamic response of TLP and tendon tension is compared.
A Robust Damage Detection Method Developed for Offshore Jacket Platforms Using Modified Artificial Immune System Algorithm
Mojtahedi, A., Lotfollahi Yaghin, M. A., Hassanzadeh, Y., Abbasidoust, F., Ettefagh, M. M., Aminfar, M. H.
2012, (3): 379-395.
Steel jacket-type platforms are the common kind of the offshore structures and health monitoring is an important issue in their safety assessment. In the present study, a new damage detection method is adopted for this kind of structures and inspected experimentally by use of a laboratory model. The method is investigated for developing the robust damage detection technique which is less sensitive to both measurement and analytical model uncertainties. For this purpose, incorporation of the artificial immune system with weighted attributes (AISWA) method into finite element (FE) model updating is proposed and compared with other methods for exploring its effectiveness in damage identification. Based on mimicking immune recognition, noise simulation and attributes weighting, the method offers important advantages and has high success rates. Therefore, it is proposed as a suitable method for the detection of the failures in the large civil engineering structures with complicated structural geometry, such as the considered case study.
Interaction Between Waves and An Array of Floating Porous Circular Cylinders
ZHAO Fen-fang, KINOSHITA Takeshi, BAO Wei-guang, HUANG Liu-yi, LIANG Zhen-lin, WAN Rong
2012, (3): 397-412.
The present study theoretically as well as experimentally investigates the interaction between waves and an array of porous circular cylinders with or without an inner porous plate based on the linear wave theory. To design more effective floating breakwaters, the transmission rate of waves propagating through the array is evaluated. Each cylinder in the array is partly made of porous materials. Specifically, it possesses a porous sidewall and an impermeable bottom. In addition, an inner porous plate is horizontally fixed inside the cylinders. It dissipates the wave more effectively and eliminates the sloshing phenomenon. The approach suggested by Kagemoto and Yue (1986) is adopted to solve the multiple-scatter problem, while a hierarchical interaction theory is adopted to deal with hydrodynamic interactions among a great number of bodies, which efficiently saves computation time. Meanwhile, a series of model tests with an array of porous cylinders is performed in a wave basin to validate the theoretical work and the calculated results. The draft of the cylinders, the location of the inner porous plate, and the spacing between adjacent cylinders are also adjusted to investigate their effects on wave dissipation.
The Assessment of Ocean Wave Energy Along the Coasts of Taiwan
LIN Yu-Hsien, FANG Ming-Chung
2012, (3): 413-430.
The wave energy resource around the coasts of Taiwan is investigated with wave buoy data covering a 3-year period (2007~2009). Eleven study sites within the region bounded by the 21.5oN~25.5oN latitudes and 118oE~122oE longitudes are selected for analysis. The monthly moving-average filter is used to obtain the low-frequency trend based on the available hourly data. After quantifying the wave power and annual wave energy, the substantial resource is the result of Penghu buoy station, which is at the northeastern side of Penghu Island in the Taiwan Strait. It is investigated that the Penghu sea area is determined to be the optimal place for wave energy production according to its abundant resource of northeasterly monsoon waves, sheltering of the Taiwan Island, operation and maintenance in terms of seasonal conditions, and constructability of wave power devices.
A Modification to Vertical Distribution of Tidal Flow Reynolds Stress in Shallow Sea
NI Zhi-hui, SONG Zhi-yao, ZHANG Xu-jin, WU Li-chun, YI Jing
2012, (3): 431-442.
Tidal flow is a periodic movement of unsteady and non-uniform, which has acceleration and deceleration process obviously, especially in coastal shallow waters. Many researches show that vertical distribution of tidal flow Reynolds stress deviated from linear distribution. The parabolic distribution of the tidal flow Reynolds stress was proposed by Song et al. (2009). Although the model fills better with field observations and indoor experimental data, it has the lower truncated series expansion of tidal flow Reynolds stress, and the description of the distribution is not very comprehensive. By introducing the motion equation of tidal flow and improving the parabolic distribution established by Song et al. (2009), the cubic distribution of the tidal flow Reynolds stress is proposed. The cubic distribution is verified well by field data (Bowden and Fairbairn, 1952; Bowden et al., 1959; Rippeth et al., 2002) and experimental data (Anwar and Atkins, 1980), is consistent with the numerical model results of Kuo et al. (1996), and is compared with the parabolic distribution of the tidal flow Reynolds stress. It is shown that this cubic distribution is not only better than the parabolic distribution, but also can better reflect the basic features of Reynolds stress deviating from linear distribution downward with the tidal flow acceleration and upward with the tidal flow deceleration, for the foundation of further study on the velocity profile of tidal flow.
Physical Simulation of Multidirectional Irregular Wave Groups
LIU Si, LIU Shu-xue, LI Jin-xuan, SUN Zhong-bin
2012, (3): 443-456.
Real waves are multidirectional waves. In the present study, the calculation method for the wave maker driving signals for generating multidirectional wave groups in physical wave basin is proposed. Its validity is first confirmed by a numerical model for which the incident boundary condition is determined by use of the proposed method. Then, the physical simulation of multidirectional wave groups is performed in laboratory wave basin. The experimental results show that multidirectional waves with expected wave groupiness, which includes not only its group height but also its group length, can be satisfactorily generated at the specified position in the physical wave basin.
Experimental Study of Pore Water Pressure and Bed Profile Change Under Regular Breaking Waves
CHENG Yong-zhou, JIANG Chang-bo, ZHAO Li-ping, PAN Yun, LI Qing-feng
2012, (3): 457-468.
There lies a close relationship between the seabed destruction and the distribution of pore water pressure under the action of breaking wave. The experiments were carried out in a wave flume with a 1:30 sloping sandy seabed to study regular breaking wave induced pore water pressure. A wide range of measurements from the regular wave runs were reported, including time series of wave heights, pore pressures. The video records were analysed to measure the time development of the seabed form and the characteristics of the orbital motion of the sand in the wave breaking region. The pore water pressure in the breaker zone showed the time variation depending on the wave phases including wave breaking and bore propagation. The time-averaged pore water pressure was higher near the seabed surface. The peak values of pore water pressure increase significantly at the breaking point. The direction of pore water pressure difference forces in the breaker zone is of fundamental importance for a correct description of the sediment dynamics. The upwards-directed pressure differences may increase sand transport by reducing the effective weight of the sediment, thereby increasing the bed form evolution. The seabed configuration changed greatly at the wave breaking zone and a sand bar was generated remarkably. The amplitude of the pore water pressure changed with the seabed surface. The results are to improve the understanding of sand transport mechanisms and seabed responses due to breaking regular waves over a sloping sandy bed
Extraction of Morphometric Bedform Characteristics from Profiling Sonar Datasets Recorded in Shallow Coastal Waters of China
HUANG Han, WANG Ya-ping, GAO Shu, CHEN Jian, YANG Yang, GAO Jian-hua
2012, (3): 469-482.
The morphological characteristics of small-scale bedforms were measured by means of an acoustic profiling sonar on the Dafeng tidal flat, Jiangsu, in 2009, and in the Jiulong Estuary, Xiamen, in 2010, respectively. The “multi-threshold value” method was utilized to reveal the morphological undulations along which bedforms were present. Analyses of the datasets obtained show that: (1) sand ripples can have irregular shapes, and (2) changes in bedform morphology are small within a single tidal cycle but may be significant over several tidal cycles. Fractal and variogram analyses of the seabed roughness revealed the existence of a significant relationship between current speed and the fractal dimension of the seabed roughness. As current speed increases, seabed roughness increases with a trend of smaller-scale bottom structures being replaced by larger-scale structures. Furthermore, the surface of the larger-scale bottom structures can either become smooth due to the absence of smaller-scale features or become rougher due to the presence of superimposed smaller-scale structures.
Quantitative Application Study on Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediment
CHEN Yi-mei, XU Su-dong, LIN Qiang
2012, (3): 483-494.
Quantitative application on remote sensing of suspended sediment is an important aspect of the engineering application of remote sensing study. In this paper, the Xiamen Bay is chosen as the study area. Eleven different phases of the remote sensing data are selected to establish a quantitative remote sensing model to map suspended sediment by using remote sensing images and the quasi-synchronous measured sediment data. Based on empirical statistics developed are the conversion models between instantaneous suspended sediment concentration and tidally-averaged suspended sediment concentration as well as the conversion models between surface layer suspended sediment concentration and the depth-averaged suspended sediment concentration. On this basis, the quantitative application integrated model on remote sensing of suspended sediment is developed. By using this model as well as multi-temporal remote sensing images, multi-year averaged suspended sediment concentration of the Xiamen Bay are predicted. The comparison between model prediction and observed data shows that the multi-year averaged suspended sediment concentration of studied sites as well as the concentration difference of neighboring sites can be well predicted by the remote sensing model with an error rate of 21.61% or less, which can satisfy the engineering requirements of channel deposition calculation.
Analysis for the Deployment of Single-Point Mooring Buoy System Based on Multi-Body Dynamics Method
CHANG Zong-yu, TANG Yuan-guang, LI Hua-jun, YANG Jian-ming, WANG Lei
2012, (3): 495-506.
Deployment of buoy systems is one of the most important procedures for the operation of buoy system. In the present study, a single-point mooring buoy system which contains surface buoy, cable segments with components, anchor and so on is modeled by applying multi-body dynamics method. The motion equations are developed in discrete node description and fully Cartesian coordinates. Then numerical method is used to solve the ordinary differential equations and dynamics simulations are achieved while anchor is casting from board. The trajectories and velocities of different nodes without current and with current in buoy system are obtained. The transient tension force of each part of the cable is analyzed in the process of deployment. Numerical results indicate that the transient payload increases to a peak value when the anchor is touching the seabed and the maximum tension force will vary with different floating configuration. This work is helpful for design and deployment planning of buoy system.
Design and Analysis of Tapered Stress Joint for Top Tensioned Riser System
2012, (3): 507-520.
Stress Joint (SJ) plays a key role in the Top Tensioned Riser (TTR) system for deep water engineering. A preliminary design method of tapered SJ is proposed in the paper, which could help designers obtain accurate design data. After a further sensitive analysis is carried out, the related parameters choice and control methods are recommended in the engineering practice. By taking the extreme environment conditions into consideration, the effects of bending stress reduction and curve control are analyzed, and the 3-D FE models are established by ABQOUS for numerical evaluation to verify the correctness of design results. At last, dynamic analysis and fatigue analysis, based on actual project, are carried out with designed stress joint. The analysis results prove the feasibility and guidance of this method in the practical engineering applications.
Robust Leader-Follower Formation Tracking Control of Multiple Underactuated Surface Vessels
PENG Zhou-hua, WANG Dan, LAN Wei-yao, SUN Gang
2012, (3): 521-534.
This paper is concerned with the formation control problem of multiple underactuated surface vessels moving in a leader-follower formation. The formation is achieved by the follower to track a virtual target defined relative to the leader. A robust adaptive target tracking law is proposed by using neural network and backstepping techniques. The advantage of the proposed control scheme is that the uncertain nonlinear dynamics caused by Coriolis/centripetal forces, nonlinear damping, unmodeled hydrodynamics and disturbances from the environment can be compensated by on line learning. Based on Lyapunov analysis, the proposed controller guarantees the tracking errors converge to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the control strategy.
An Investigation on the Formation of Submerged Bar Under Surges in Sandy Coastal Region
Mustafa DEM?RC?, M. Sami AK?Z
2012, (3): 535-546.
Cross-shore sediment transport rate exposed to waves is very important for coastal morphology, the design of marine structures such as seawalls, jetties, breakwaters etc, and the prevention of coastal erosion and accretion due to on-off shore sediment transportation. In the present study, the experiments on cross-shore sediment transport are carried out in a laboratory wave channel with initial beach slopes of 1/8, 1/10 and 1/15. By using the regular waves with different deep-water wave steepnesses generated by a pedal-type wave generator, the geometrical characteristics of beach profiles under storm conditions and the parameters affecting on-off shore sediment transport are investigated for the beach materials with medium diameters of d50=0.25, 0.32, 0.45, 0.62 and 0.80 mm. The offshore bar geometric characteristics are the horizontal distances from the shoreline to the bar beginning (Xb), crest (Xt), and ending (Xs) points, the depth from the bar crest to the still water level (ht), and the bar volume (Vbar). The experimental results have indicated that when the deep-water steepness (H0/L0) increased, the net movement to seaside increased. With the increasing wave steepness, the bars moved to widen herewith the vertical distances from still water level to the bar beginning (Xb), crest (Xt) and ending (Xs) points and the horizontal distances from the coast line to the bar beginning, crest and ending points increased. It was also shown from experimental results that the horizontal distances from the bar beginning and ending points to the coast line increased with the decrease of the beach slope. The experimental results obtained from this study are compared with previous experimental work and found to be of the same magnitude as the experimental measurements and followed the expected basic trend.
Vision-Based System of AUV for An Underwater Pipeline Tracker
ZHANG Tie-dong, ZENG Wen-jing, WAN Lei, QIN Zai-bai
2012, (3): 547-554.
This paper describes a new framework for detection and tracking of underwater pipeline, which includes software system and hardware system. It is designed for vision system of AUV based on monocular CCD camera. First, the real-time data flow from image capture card is pre-processed and pipeline features are extracted for navigation. The region saturation degree is advanced to remove false edge point group after Sobel operation. An appropriate way is proposed to clear the disturbance around the peak point in the process of Hough transform. Second, the continuity of pipeline layout is taken into account to improve the efficiency of line extraction. Once the line information has been obtained, the reference zone is predicted by Kalman filter. It denotes the possible appearance position of the pipeline in the image. Kalman filter is used to estimate this position in next frame so that the information of pipeline of each frame can be known in advance. Results obtained on real optic vision data in tank experiment are displayed and discussed. They show that the proposed system can detect and track the underwater pipeline online, and is effective and feasible.

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