ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2013 Vol.(1)

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Robust Optimal Output Tracking Control of A Midwater Trawl System Based on T-S Fuzzy Nonlinear Model
ZHOU Hua, CHEN Ying-long, YANG Hua-yong
2013, (1): 1-16.
A robust optimal output tracking control method for a midwater trawl system is investigated based on T-S fuzzy nonlinear model. A simplified nonlinear mathematical model is first employed to represent a midwater trawl system, and then a T-S fuzzy model is adopted to approximate the nonlinear system. Since the strong nonlinearities and the external disturbance of the trawling system, a mixed H2/H∞ fuzzy output tracking control strategy via T-S fuzzy system is proposed to regulate the trawl depth to follow a desired trajectory. The trawl depth can be regulated by adjusting the winch velocity automatically and the tracking error can be minimized according to the robust optimal criterion. In order to validate the proposed control method, a computer simulation is conducted. The simulation results indicate that the proposed fuzzy robust optimal controller make the trawl net rapidly follow the desired trajectory under the model uncertainties and the external disturbance caused by wave and current.
LVP Modeling and Dynamic Characteristics Prediction of A Hydraulic Power Unit in Deep-Sea
CAO Xue-peng, YE Min, DENG Bin, ZHANG Cui-hong, YU Zu-ying
2013, (1): 17-32.
A hydraulic power unit (HPU) is the driving “heart” of deep-sea working equipment. It is critical to predict its dynamic performances in deep-water before being immerged in the seawater, while the experimental tests by simulating deep-sea environment have many disadvantages, such as expensive cost, long test cycles, and difficult to achieve low-temperature simulation, which is only used as a supplementary means for confirmatory experiment. This paper proposes a novel theoretical approach based on the linear varying parameters (LVP) modeling to foresee the dynamic performances of the driving unit. Firstly, based on the varying environment features, dynamic expressions of the compressibility and viscosity of hydraulic oil are derived to reveal the fluid performances changing. Secondly, models of hydraulic system and electrical system are accomplished respectively through studying the control process and energy transfer, and then LVP models of the pressure and flow rate control is obtained through the electro-hydraulic models integration. Thirdly, dynamic characteristics of HPU are obtained by the model simulating within bounded closed sets of varying parameters. Finally, the developed HPU is tested in a deep-sea imitating hull, and the experimental results are well consistent with the theoretical analysis outcomes, which clearly declare that the LVP modeling is a rational way to foresee dynamic performances of HPU. The research approach and model analysis results can be applied to the predictions of working properties and product designs for other deep-sea hydraulic pump.
Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Current on Wave Focusing
PAN Yu-cun, LIU Dian-yong
2013, (1): 33-42.
A numerical study on the acoustic radiation of a propeller interacting with non-uniform inflow has been conducted. Real geometry of a marine propeller DTMB 4118 is used in the calculation, and sliding mesh technique is adopted to deal with the rotational motion of the propeller. The performance of the DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) approach at capturing the unsteady forces and moments on the propeller is compared with experiment. Far-field sound radiation is predicted by the formation 1A developed by Farassat, an integral solution of FW-H (Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings) equation in time domain. The sound pressure and directivity patterns of the propeller operating in two specific velocity distributions are discussed.
Seismic Response of Submerged Floating Tunnel Tether
SU Zhi-bin, SUN Sheng-nan
2013, (1): 43-50.
A mathematical equation for vibration of submerged floating tunnel tether under the effects of earthquake and parametric excitation is presented. Multi-step Galerkin method is used to simplify this equation and the fourth-order Runge-Kuta integration method is used for numerical analysis. Finally, vibration response of submerged floating tunnel tether subjected to earthquake and parametric excitation is analyzed in a few numerical examples. The results show that the vibration response of tether varies with the seismic wave type; the steady maximum mid-span displacement of tether subjected to seismic wave keeps constant when parametric resonance takes place; the transient maximum mid-span displacement of tether is related to the peak value of input seismic wave acceleration.
A New Approach to the Determination of the Critical Slip Surfaces of Slopes
LI Liang, Cheng Y. M, CHU Xue-song
2013, (1): 51-64.
A new method for the determination of the critical slip surfaces of slopes is proposed in this paper. In this paper, the original critical slip field method is extended in terms of the total residual moment, values of residual work as well as the unbalanced thrust force at the exit point for a given non-circular slip surface. The most critical slip surface with the maximum representative value for a prescribed factor of safety will be optimized and located using the harmony search algorithm. The prescribed factor of safety is modified with certain tiny interval in order to find the critical slip surface where the maximum representative value is zero. The aforementioned approach to the location of the critical slip surface is greatly different from the traditional limit equilibrium procedure. Three typical soil slopes are evaluated by use of the proposed method, and the comparisons with the classical approaches have illustrated the applicability of the proposed method.
Effect of Desiccation of Marine Environment on Beam Structure
CHEN Da, WANG Na, HOU Li-jun, LIAO Ying-di
2013, (1): 65-72.
This paper presents the study on the effect of desiccation for different part of offshore structure corresponding to the water level. A coupled elastoplastic damage model is proposed to describe the mechanical behavior of cement-based materials under external loading and desiccation, in which both the plastic and damage behaviors under multi-axial stress are considered in composition with the desiccation effect. The comparison between numerical simulation and experimental data indicates that the proposed model can well predict the mechanical characteristics of cement-based materials with different saturations. In addition, a series of small beams subjected to desiccation are further analyzed to reveal the response of structure in the drying process.
Numerical Modeling on Hydrodynamic Performance of A Bottom-Hinged Flap Wave Energy Converter
ZHAO Hai-tao, SUN Zhi-lin, HAO Chun-ling, SHEN Jia-fa
2013, (1): 73-86.
The hydrodynamic performance of a bottom-hinged flap wave energy converter (WEC) is investigated through a frequency domain numerical model. The numerical model is verified through a two-dimensional analytic solution, as well as the qualitative analysis on the dynamic response of avibrating system. The concept of “optimum density” of the bottom-hinged flap is proposed, and its analytic expression is derived as well. The frequency interval in which the optimum density exists is also obtained. The analytic expression of the optimum linear damping coefficient is obtained by a bottom-hinged WEC. Some basic dynamic properties involving natural period, excitation moment, pitch amplitude, and optimum damping coefficient are analyzed and discussed in detail. In addition, this paper highlights the analysis of effects on the conversion performance of the device exerted by some important parameters. The results indicate that “the optimum linear damping period of 5.0 s” is the most ideal option in the short wave sea states with the wave period below 6.0 s. Shallow water depth, large flap thickness and low flap density are advised in the practical design of the device in short wave sea states in order to maximize power capture. In the sea state with water depth of 5.0 m and wave period of 5.0 s, the results of parametric optimization suggest a flap with the width of 8.0 m, thickness of 1.6 m, and with the density as little as possible when the optimum power take-off (PTO) damping coefficient is adopted.
Fully Nonlinear Simulations of Wave Resonance by An Array of Cylinders in Vertical Motions
HUANG Hao-cai, WANG Chi-zhong, LENG Jian-xing
2013, (1): 87-98.
The finite element method (FEM) is employed to analyze the resonant oscillations of the liquid confined within multiple or an array of floating bodies with fully nonlinear boundary conditions on the free surface and the body surface in two dimensions. The velocity potentials at each time step are obtained through the FEM with 8-node quadratic shape functions. The finite element linear system is solved by the conjugate gradient (CG) method with a symmetric successive overelaxlation (SSOR) preconditioner. The waves at the open boundary are absorbed by the combination of the damping zone method and the Sommerfeld-Orlanski equation. Numerical examples are given by an array of floating wedge- shaped cylinders and rectangular cylinders. Results are provided for heave motions including wave elevations, profiles and hydrodynamic forces. Comparisons are made in several cases with the results obtained from the second order solution in the time domain. It is found that the wave amplitude in the middle region of the array is larger than those in other places, and the hydrodynamic force on a cylinder increases with the cylinder closing to the middle of the array.
Route Height Connection Across the Sea by Using the Vertical Deflections and Ellipsoidal Height Data
GUO Jin-yun, CHEN Yong-ning, LIU Xin, ZHONG Shi-xia, MAI Zhao-qiu
2013, (1): 99-110.
Distance between the main land and island is so long that it is very difficult to precisely connect the height datum across the sea with the traditional method like the trigonometric leveling, or it is very expensive and takes long time to implement the height transfer with the geopotential technique. We combine the data of GPS surveying, astro-geodesy and EGM2008 to precisely connect the orthometric height across the sea with the improved astronomical leveling method in the paper. The Qiongzhou Strait is selected as the test area for the height connection over the sea. We precisely determine the geodetic latitudes, longitudes, heights and deflections of the vertical for four points on both sides across the strait. Modeled deflections of the vertical along the height connecting routes over the sea are determined with EGM2008 model based on the geodetic positions and heights of the sea segmentation points from DNSC08MSS model. Differences of the measured and modeled deflections of the vertical are calculated at four points on both sides and linearly change along the route. So the deflections of the vertical along the route over the sea can be improved by the linear interpolation model. The results are also in accord with those of trigonometirc levelings. The practical case shows that we can precisely connect the orthometric height across the Qiongzhou Strait to satisfy the requirement of order 3 leveling network of China. The method is very efficient to precisely connect the height datum across the sea along the route up to 80 km.
Design and Research on the Two-Joint Mating System of Underwater Vehicle
ZHANG Zhong-lin, WANG Li-quan
2013, (1): 111-120.
In the 21st century, people have come to the era of ocean science and ocean economy. With the development of ocean science and technology and the thorough research on the ocean, underwater mating technique has been widely used in such fields as sunk ship salvage, deep ocean workstation, submarine lifesaving aid and military affairs. In this paper, researches are made home and abroad on mating technology. Two-joint mating system of underwater vehicle is designed including plane system, three-dimensional assembly system and control system in order to increase the capacity of adapting platform obliquity and adopting rotational skirt scheme. It is clear that the system fits the working space of underwater vehicle passageway and there is no interference phenomenon in assembly design. The finite element model of the system shell and the pressurization of the joint are established. The results of the finite element computing and the pressing test are accordant, and thus it can testify that the shell material meet the need of intension and joint pressurization is reliable. Modeling of the control system is accomplished, and simulation and analysis are made, which can provide directions for the controller design of mating system of underwater vehicles.
Application of New Concept Waterproofing in Xiang’an Undersea Tunnel, China
CHEN Tie-lin, ZHANG Ding-li, ZENG Chao, YING Guo-gang
2013, (1): 121-130.
As a kind of transportation mode for crossing channels, undersea tunnel has incomparable advantages for its directness, convenience, fastness, insusceptibility to weather conditions, and smaller influences on environments. In recent years, with the development of undersea tunnel construction, the design and construction technologies have been greatly enhanced. The first undersea tunnel in China has just been built. Waterproofing is the key technique of undersea tunneling. A new concept of waterproofing scheme of grouting, sealing, draining and divided sections was adopted in the construction of the tunnel based on the researches, the in-situ geological features, the astuteness of the current technology, and the cost of construction. The structural details of the sealing and draining system are introduced to illustrate the salient features of the new waterproofing technique. It is hoped that experiences described in the paper can offer guidance for the construction of the extensive undersea tunnels in the coming years.
Study on the Uncertainty of the Available Time Under Ship Fire Based on Monte Carlo Sampling Method
WANG Jin-hui, CHU Guan-quan, LI Kai-yuan
2013, (1): 131-140.
Available safety egress time under ship fire (SFAT) is critical to ship fire safety assessment, design and emergency rescue. Although it is available to determine SFAT by using fire models such as the two-zone fire model CFAST and the field model FDS, none of these models can address the uncertainties involved in the input parameters. To solve this problem, current study presents a framework of uncertainty analysis for SFAT. Firstly, a deterministic model estimating SFAT is built. The uncertainties of the input parameters are regarded as random variables with the given probability distribution functions. Subsequently, the deterministic SFAT model is employed to couple with a Monte Carlo sampling method to investigate the uncertainties of the SFAT. The Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficient (SRCC) is used to examine the sensitivity of each input uncertainty parameter on SFAT. To illustrate the proposed approach in detail, a case study is performed. Based on the proposed approach, probability density function and cumulative density function of SFAT are obtained. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis with regard to SFAT is also conducted. The results give a high-negative correlation of SFAT and the fire growth coefficient whereas the effect of other parameters is so weak that they can be neglected.

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