ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2013 Vol.(2)

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Wave-Tide-Surge Coupled Simulation for Typhoon Maemi
Byung Ho Choi, Byung Il Min, Kyeong Ok Kim, Jin Hee Yuk
2013, (2): 141-158.
[Abstract](556)
Abstract:
The main task of this study focuses on studying the effect of wave-current interaction on currents, storm surge and wind wave as well as effects of current induced wave refraction and current on waves by using numerical models which consider the bottom boundary layer and sea surface roughness parameter for shallow and smooth bed area around Korean Peninsula. The coupled system (unstructured-mesh SWAN wave and ADCIRC) run on the same unstructured mesh. This identical and homogeneous mesh allows the physics of wave-circulation interactions to be correctly resolved in both models. The unstructured mesh can be applied to a large domain allowing all energy from deep to shallow waters to be seamlessly followed. There is no nesting or overlapping of structured wave meshes, and no interpolation is required. In response to typhoon Maemi (2003), all model components were validated independently, and shown to provide a faithful representation of the system’s response to this storm. The waves and storm surge were allowed to develop on the continental shelf and interact with the complex nearshore environment. The resulting modeling system can be used extensively for prediction of the typhoon surge. The result show that it is important to incorporate the wave-current interaction effect into coastal area in the wave-tide-surge coupled model. At the same time, it should consider effects of depth-induced wave breaking, wind field, currents and sea surface elevation in prediction of waves. Specially, we found that: (1) wave radiation stress enhanced the current and surge elevation otherwise wave enhanced nonlinear bottom boundary layer decreased that, (2) wind wave was significantly controlled by sea surface roughness thus we cautiously took the experimental expression. The resulting modeling system can be used for hindcasting (prediction) the wave-tide-surge coupled environments at complex coastline, shallow water and fine sediment area like areas around Korean Peninsula.
Derivation of Reliability Index Vector Formula for Series System and Its Application
KANG Hai-gui, ZHANG Jing, SUN Ying-wei, GUO Wei
2013, (2): 159-168.
[Abstract](486)
Abstract:
In this study, a reliability index vector formula is proposed for series system with two failure modes in term of the concept of reliability index vector and equivalent failure modes. Firstly, the reliability index vector is introduced to determine the correlation coefficient between two failure modes, and then, the reliability index vector of a series system can be obtained. Several numerical cases and an analysis on offshore platform are performed, and the results show that this scheme provided here has better computational accuracy, and its calculation process is simpler for the series systems reliability calculations compared with the other methods. Also this scheme is more convenient for the engineering applications.
An Elastoplastic Damage Constitutive Model for Concrete
LIU Jun, LIN Gao, ZHONG Hong
2013, (2): 169-182.
[Abstract](541)
Abstract:
An elastoplastic damage constitutive model to simulate nonlinear behavior of concrete is presented. Similar to traditional plastic theory, the irreversible deformation is modeled in effective stress space. In order to better describe different stiffness degradation mechanisms of concrete under tensile and compressive loading conditions, two damage variables, i.e., tension and compression are introduced, to quantitatively evaluate the degree of deterioration of concrete structure. The rate dependent behavior is taken into account, and this model is derived firmly in the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. Fully implicit backward-Euler algorithm is suggested to perform constitutive integration. Numerical results of the model accord well with the test results for specimens under uniaxial tension and compression, biaxial loading and triaxial loading. Failure processes of double-edge-notched (DEN) specimen are also simulated to further validate the proposed model.
Study on Dim Target Detection and Discrimination from Sea Clutter
WANG Wen-guang, SUN Zuo-wei, LI Chen-ming, WANG Jun
2013, (2): 183-192.
[Abstract](552)
Abstract:
Dim target detection from sea clutter is one of the difficult topics in ocean remote sensing application. By aiming at the shortcoming of false alarms when using track before detect (TBD) based on dynamic programming, a new discrimination method called statistics of direction histogram (SDH) is proposed, which is based on different features of trajectories between the true target and false one. Moreover, a new series of discrimination schemes of SDH and Local Extreme Value method (LEV) are studied and applied to simulate the actually measured radar data. The results show that the given discrimination is effective to reduce false alarms during dim targets detection.
Effect of Time Step Size and Turbulence Model on the Open Water Hydrodynamic Performance Prediction of Contra-Rotating Propellers
WANG Zhan-zhi, XIONG Ying
2013, (2): 193-204.
[Abstract](482)
Abstract:
A growing interest has been devoted to the contra-rotating propellers (CRPs) due to their high propulsive efficiency, torque balance, low fuel consumption, low cavitations, low noise performance and low hull vibration. Compared with the single-screw system, it is more difficult for the open water performance prediction because forward and aft propellers interact with each other and generate a more complicated flow field around the CRPs system. The current work focuses on the open water performance prediction of contra-rotating propellers by RANS and sliding mesh method considering the effect of computational time step size and turbulence model. The validation study has been performed on two sets of contra-rotating propellers developed by David W Taylor Naval Ship R & D center. Compared with the experimental data, it shows that RANS with sliding mesh method and SST k-ω turbulence model has a good precision in the open water performance prediction of contra-rotating propellers, and small time step size can improve the level of accuracy for CRPs with the same blade number of forward and aft propellers, while a relatively large time step size is a better choice for CRPs with different blade numbers.
Analysis on Shock Wave Speed of Water Hammer of Lifting Pipes for Deep-Sea Mining
ZHOU Zhi-jin, YANG Ning, WANG Zhao
2013, (2): 205-214.
[Abstract](689)
Abstract:
Water hammer occurs whenever the fluid velocity in vertical lifting pipe systems for deep-sea mining suddenly changes. In this work, the shock wave was proven to play an important role in changing pressures and periods, and mathematical and numerical modeling technology was presented for simulated transient pressure in the abnormal pump operation. As volume concentrations were taken into account of shock wave speed, the experiment results about the pressure-time history, discharge-time history and period for the lifting pipe system showed that: as its concentrations rose up, the maximum transient pressure went down, so did its discharges; when its volume concentrations increased gradually, the period numbers of pressure decay were getting less and less, and the corresponding shock wave speed decreased. These results have highly coincided with simulation results. The conclusions are important to design lifting transporting system to prevent water hammer in order to avoid potentially devastating consequences, such as damage to components and equipment and risks to personnel.
A Lagrangian Particle Random Walk Model for Simulating A Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Plume with both Buoyant and Non-Buoyant Features
TIAN Yu, LI Wei, ZHANG Ai-qun
2013, (2): 215-230.
[Abstract](463)
Abstract:
This paper presents a computational model of simulating a deep-sea hydrothermal plume based on a Lagrangian particle random walk algorithm. This model achieves the efficient process to calculate a numerical plume developed in a fluid-advected environment with the characteristics such as significant filament intermittency and significant plume meander due to flow variation with both time and location. Especially, this model addresses both non-buoyant and buoyant features of a deep-sea hydrothermal plume in three dimensions, which significantly challenge a strategy for tracing the deep-sea hydrothermal plume and localizing its source. This paper also systematically discusses stochastic initial and boundary conditions that are critical to generate a proper numerical plume. The developed model is a powerful tool to evaluate and optimize strategies for the tracking of a deep-sea hydrothermal plume via an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV).
An Integrated Dynamic Model of Ocean Mining System and Fast Simulation of Its Longitudinal Reciprocating Motion
DAI Yu, LIU Shao-jun
2013, (2): 231-244.
[Abstract](590)
Abstract:
An integrated dynamic model of China’s deep ocean mining system is developed and the fast simulation analysis of its longitudinal reciprocating motion operation processes is achieved. The seafloor tracked miner is built as a three-dimensional single-body model with six-degree-of-freedom. The track-terrain interaction is modeled by partitioning the track-terrain interface into a certain number of mesh elements with three mutually perpendicular forces, including the normal force, the longitudinal shear force and the lateral shear force, acting on the center point of each mesh element. The hydrodynamic force of the miner is considered and applied. By considering the operational safety and collection efficiency, two new mining paths for the miner on the seafloor are proposed, which can be simulated with the established single-body dynamic model of the miner. The pipeline subsystem is built as a three-dimensional multi-body discrete element model, which is divided into rigid elements linked by flexible connectors. The flexible connector without mass is represented by six spring-damper elements. The external hydrodynamic forces of the ocean current from the longitudinal and lateral directions are both considered and modeled based on the Morison formula and applied to the mass center of each corresponding discrete rigid element. The mining ship is simplified and represented by a general kinematic point, whose heave motion induced by the ocean waves and the longitudinal and lateral towing motions are considered and applied. By integrating the single-body dynamic model of the miner and the multi-body discrete element dynamic model of the pipeline, and defining the kinematic equations of the mining ship, the integrated dynamic model of the total deep ocean mining system is formed. The longitudinal reciprocating motion operation modes of the total mining system, which combine the active straight-line and turning motions of the miner and the ship, and the passive towed motions of the pipeline, are proposed and simulated with the developed 3D dynamic model. Some critical simulation results are obtained and analyzed, such as the motion trajectories of key subsystems, the velocities of the buoyancy modules and the interaction forces between subsystems, which in a way can provide important theoretical basis and useful technical reference for the practical deep ocean mining system analysis, operation and control.
Correction for Depth Biases to Shallow Water Multibeam Bathymetric Data
YANG Fan-lin, LI Jia-biao, LIU Zhi-min, HAN Li-tao
2013, (2): 245-254.
[Abstract](536)
Abstract:
Vertical errors often present in multibeam swath bathymetric data. They are mainly sourced by sound refraction, internal wave disturbance, imperfect tide correction, transducer mounting, long period heave, static draft change, dynamic squat and dynamic motion residuals, etc. Although they can be partly removed or reduced by specific algorithms, the synthesized depth biases are unavoidable and sometimes have an important influence on high precise utilization of the final bathymetric data. In order to confidently identify the decimeter-level changes in seabed morphology by MBES, we must remove or weaken depth biases and improve the precision of multibeam bathymetry further. The fixed-interval profiles that are perpendicular to the vessel track are generated to adjust depth biases between swaths. We present a kind of postprocessing method to minimize the depth biases by the histogram of cumulative depth biases. The datum line in each profile can be obtained by the maximum value of histogram. The corrections of depth biases can be calculated according to the datum line. And then the quality of final bathymetry can be improved by the corrections. The method is verified by a field test.
Research on Propeller Dynamic Load Simulation System of Electric Propulsion Ship
HUANG Hui, SHEN Ai-di, CHU Jian-xin
2013, (2): 255-263.
[Abstract](515)
Abstract:
A dynamic marine propeller simulation system was developed, which is utilized for meeting the experimental requirement of theory research and engineering design of marine electric propulsion system. By applying an actual ship parameter and its accurate propeller ~ and ~ curve data, functional experiments based on the simulation system were carried out. The experiment results showed that the system can correctly emulate the propeller characteristics, produce the dynamic and steady performances of the propeller under different navigation modes, and present actual load torque for electric propulsion motor.
Study on 10 kVDC Powered Junction Box for A Cabled Ocean Observatory System
CHEN Yan-hu, YANG Can-jun, LI De-jun, JIN Bo, CHEN Ying
2013, (2): 265-275.
[Abstract](514)
Abstract:
A cabled ocean observatory system that can provide abundant power and broad bandwidth communication for undersea instruments is developed. A 10 kV direct current (kVDC) with up to 10 kW power, along with 1 Gigabit/sec Ethernet communication, can be transmitted from the shore to the seafloor through an umbilical armored cable. A subsea junction box is fixed at a cable terminal, enabling the extension of up to nine connections. The box consists of three main pressure vessels that perform power conversion, power distribution, and real-time communication functions. A method of stacking modules is used to design the power conversion system in order to reduce the 10 kV voltage to levels that can power the attached instruments. A power distribution system and an Ethernet communication system are introduced to control the power supply and transmit data or commands between the terminals and the shore station, respectively. Specific validations of all sections were qualified in a laboratory environment prior to the sea trial. The ocean observatory system was then deployed at the coast of the East China Sea along with three in situ instruments for a 14-day test. The results show that this high voltage-powered observatory system is effective for subsea long-term and real-time observations.
Simulation Analysis and Experimental Study of Defect Detection Underwater by ACFM Probe
LI Wei, CHEN Guo-ming, ZHANG Chuan-rong, LIU Tao
2013, (2): 277-282.
[Abstract](471)
Abstract:
This article studies the application of the alternating current field measurement (ACFM) method in defect detection for underwater structures. Numerical model of the ACFM system is built for structure surface defect detection in seawater environment. Finite element simulation is performed to investigate rules and characteristics of the electromagnetic signal distribution in the defected area. In respect of the simulation results, underwater artificial crack detection experiments are designed and conducted for the ACFM system. The experiment results show that the ACFM system can detect cracks in underwater structures and the detection accuracy is higher than 85%. This can meet the engineering requirement of underwater structure defect detection. The results in this article can be applied to establish technical foundation for the optimization and development of ACFM based underwater structure defects detection system.

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