ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2013 Vol.(3)

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Study on Far Field Wave Patterns and Their Characteristics of Havelock Form Green Function
XU Yong, DONG Wen-cai, XIAO Wen-bin
2013, (3): 283-298.
A new mathematical integral representation including five integrals about the far field wave shape function of Havelock form translating-pulsating source is obtained by performing variable substitution. Constant-phase curves and propagation wave patterns are investigated by applying stationary phase analysis method to the new representation. Some findings are summarized as follows: (1) when 0< <0.25 (where is the Strouhal number), three types of stationary phase curves corresponding to three propagation wave patterns such as fan wave pattern, inner V and outer V wave patterns, are found in the integral representation. (2) When >0.25, besides three types of wave patterns such as a ring-faning wave pattern, a fan wave pattern and an inner V wave pattern, a new one called parallel wave pattern is also found which not only exists in the integrals about the ring-fan wave and fan wave, but also in the integrals whose interval is . In addition, Characteristics about these parallel waves such as mathematical expressions, existence conditions, propagation directions and wave lengths are obtained, and cancellation relationships between these parallel waves are stated, which certificates the fact that there are no parallel waves existing in the far field.
Transportation of Floating Structures by Using Newly Built Heavy Lifting Semi Vessel HYSY278
SUN Wei-ying, ZHANG Da-gang, FAN Zhi-xia
2013, (3): 299-312.
Transportation of floating structures for long distance has always been associated with the use of heavy semi transport vessel. The requirements of this type of vessel are always special, and its availability is limited. To prepare for the future development of the South China Sea deepwater projects, COOEC has recently built a heavy lift transport vessel – Hai Yang Shi You 278 (HYSY278). This semi-submersible vessel has displacement capacity of 50k DWT, and a breath of 42 m. Understanding the vessel’s applicability and preparing its use for future deepwater projects are becoming imminent need. This paper reviews the critical issues associated with the floating structure transportation and performs detailed analysis of two designed floating structures during transportation. The newly built COOEC transportation vessel HYSY278 will be used to dry transport the floating structures from COOEC fabrication yard in Qingdao to the oil field in the South China Sea. The entire process will start with load-out/float-off the floating structures from the construction sites, offload the platform from the vessel if needed, dry transport floating structures through a long distance, and finally offload the platform. Both hydrodynamic and structural analyses are performed to evaluate transport vessel and floating structures. Critical issues associated with the transportation and offloading of platform from the vessel will be studied in detail. Detailed study is performed to evaluate the response of the system during this phase and additional work needed to make the vessel feasible for use of this purpose. The results demonstrate that with proper modifications, HYSY278 can effectively be used for transporting structures with proper arrangement and well-prepared operation. The procedure and details are presented on the basis of study results. Special attentions associated with future use will also be discussed based on the results from analysis.
Numerical Solution of the Asymmetric Water Impact of A Wedge in Three Degrees of Freedom
H. Ghazizade-Ahsaee, A. H. Nikseresht
2013, (3): 313-322.
Impact problems associated with water entry have important applications in various aspects of naval architecture and ocean engineering. Estimation of hydrodynamic impact forces especially during the first instances after the impact is very important and is of interest. Since the estimation of hydrodynamic impact load plays an important role in safe design and also in evaluation of structural weight and costs, it is better to use a reliable and accurate prediction method instead of a simple estimation resulted by analyzing methods. In landing of flying boats, some phenomena such as weather conditions and strong winds can cause asymmetric instead of symmetric descent. In this paper, a numerical simulation of the asymmetric impact of a wedge, as the step of a flying boat, considering dynamic equations in two-phase flow is taken into account. The dynamic motion of the wedge in two-phase flow is solved based on finite volume method with volume of fluid (VOF) scheme considering dynamic equations. Then the effects of different angles of impact and water depth on the velocity change and slamming forces in an asymmetric impact are investigated. The comparison between the simulation results and experimental data verifies the accuracy of the method applied in the present study.
Full Wave Solution for Hydrodynamic Behaviors of Pile Breakwater
ZHU Da-tong
2013, (3): 323-344.
Rayleigh expansion is used to study the water-wave interaction with a row of pile breakwater in finite water depth. Evanescent waves, the wave energy dissipated on the fluid resistance and the thickness of the breakwater are totally included in the model. The formulae of wave reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained. The accuracy of the present model is verified by a comparison with existing results. It is found that the predicted wave reflection and transmission coefficients for the zero order are all highly consistent with the experimental data (Hagiwara, 1984; Isaacson et al., 1998) and plane wave solutions (Zhu, 2011). The losses of the wave energy for the fluid passing through slits play an important role, which removes the phenomena of enhanced wave transmission.
A Single Mooring System with Sag-Extensibility and Flexural Rigidity Applied to Offshore Platform
M.-C. Tsai, Hsien Hua Lee, Jun-Yen Lee, S.-S. Hsiao
2013, (3): 335-350.
Floating platform system has been extensively used in ocean exploitation, particularly for a tension-leg platform (TLP) system in deep water. Most of the TLPs are multi-mooring systems, where multi-joints are connected to the tension-legs so that the platform is not allowed to twist freely and may subject to enormous force induced by large incident waves in the weak-direction of the structure. This study aims to exploit a single moored offshore platform system that may attract less force and can be operated with less effort. In our analysis, in addition to mechanical properties of the tether, two important properties are also taken into consideration for the single mooring tether with expanded cross sectional dimension and utilization of stronger material, namely, the sag-extensibility and the flexural rigidity. Finally, the dynamic structural behavior produced by the mechanical effects on the new system is investigated and compared with that of traditional design while the wave-structure interactions of large body are also accounted for. Our study finds that the neglect of sag-extensibility or the flexural rigidity of large, strong mooring cable may result in a conservative but not necessarily safe design.
Umbilical Cable Recovery Load Analysis
YAN Shu-wang, JIA Zhao-lin, FENG Xiao-wei, LI Shi-tao
2013, (3): 351-358.
Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field. The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work. Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system. Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem. The tension load at the mudline must be known first, and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation. The recovery analysis also involves umbilical- soil interaction and becomes more complicated. Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed. The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.
Experimental Study on A Pendulum Wave Energy Converter
QIU Shou-qiang, YE Jia-wei, WANG Dong-jiao, LIANG Fu-lin
2013, (3): 359-368.
Many of the existing wave energy converters (WEC) are of oscillating water column (OWC) and point absorber (PA) types. Fewer references have been published in public on the pendulum type WEC. A series of experimental tests on a bottom-hinged pendulum WEC model are carried out and some results are revealed in the present study. The purpose of this paper is to present a detailed description of the tests. It is found that wave energy conversion efficiency varies with the applied damping and wave conditions. In addition, special attention is given to the effect of the water ballast on the efficiency of the wave energy converter. It is demonstrated that the ballast plays an important role in energy extraction. Better understanding on how the performance of the device is influenced by damping, wave height, wave period and ballast is shown.
Mooring System of Ocean Turbulence Observation Based on Submerged Buoy
SONG Da-lei, SUN Jing-jing, XUE Bing, JIANG Qian-li, WU Bing-wei
2013, (3): 369-378.
A comparison experiment has been taken in the Kiaochow Bay between a newly designed mooring turbulence observation instrument (MTOI) and microstructure profiler MSS60 made by Sea & Sun. The whole observing system is based on a submerged buoy, in which the turbulence observation instrument is embedded, with a streamline-shape floating body, which is made of buoyancy material of glass microsphere. For the movement of seawater and the cable shaking strongly anytime influence the behaviors of the floating body, the accelerate sensors are used for the vibration measurement in the instrument together with the shear probe sensor. Both the vibration data and the shear data are acquired by the instrument at the same time. During data processing, the vibration signals can be removed and leave the shear data which we really need. In order to prove the reliability of the new turbulence instrument MTOI, a comparison experiment was designed. The measuring conditions are the same both in time and space. By this way, the two groups of data are comparable. In this paper, the conclusion gives a good similarity of 0.93 for the two groups of shear data in dissipation rate. The processing of the data acquired by MTOI is based on the cross-spectrum analysis, and the dissipation rate of it matches the Nasmyth spectrum well.
Robust Source Localization in Shallow Water Based on Vector Optimization
SONG Hai-yan, SHI Jie, LIU Bo-sheng
2013, (3): 379-390.
Owing to the multipath effect, the source localization in shallow water has been an area of active interest. However, most methods for source localization in shallow water are sensitive to the assumed model of the underwater environment and have poor robustness against the underwater channel uncertainty, which limit their further application in practical engineering. In this paper, a new method of source localization in shallow water, based on vector optimization concept, is described, which is highly robust against environmental factors affecting the localization, such as the channel depth, the bottom reflection coefficients, and so on. Through constructing the uncertainty set of the source vector errors and extracting the multi-path sound rays from the sea surface and bottom, the proposed method can accurately localize one or more sources in shallow water dominated by multipath propagation. It turns out that the natural formulation of our approach involves minimization of two quadratic functions subject to infinitely many nonconvex quadratic constraints. It shows that this problem (originally intractable) can be reformulated in a convex form as the so-called second-order cone program (SOCP) and solved efficiently by using the well-established interior point method, such as the software tool, SeDuMi. Computer simulations show better performance of the proposed method as compared with existing algorithms and establish a theoretical foundation for the practical engineering application.
A Study on Kinematics Characteristics of Freak Wave
CUI Cheng, ZHANG Ning-chuan, ZUO Shu-hua, FANG Zhuo
2013, (3): 391-402.
Based on the 3rd-order Stokes wave theory, the speed of freak waves is formulated in terms of the period and the wave height. Finite modified wave steepness gives rise to a significant enhancement of the nonlinear contributions to the freak wave speed in comparison with the 3rd-order Stokes wave theory. For a fix modified wave steepness, the estimated amplification of the nonlinear contributions due to the deviation from the 3rd-order Stokes wave theory is 0.22~0.99. In addition, the velocity and acceleration fields are also documented in detail. In the present simulation, the horizontal velocities are smaller than the wave speed, and the freak wave exhibits a maximal horizontal velocity up to 37% of the wave speed and a maximal vertical acceleration up to about 20% of the gravitational acceleration.
Maneuvering Modeling and Simulation of AUV Dynamic Systems with Euler-Rodriguez Quaternion Method
C. W. Chen, J. S. Kouh, J. F. Tsai
2013, (3): 403-416.
The purpose of this study is to develop maneuvering models and systems of a simulator to improve the motion performance of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) at the preliminary design stages in advance. The AUVs simulation systems based on the standard submarine equations of motion in six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) integrated with the Euler-Rodriguez quaternion method for representing singularity-free AUV attitude and time-saving calculation, and with a nonlinear control model for maneuvering and depth control simulations, time-marching in the fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme. For validation of the simulation codes, results of the ISiMI AUV open-loop tests including turning test and zigzag test as well as an AUV simulator on the basis of Euler-angle method were used to compare with the quaternion-based AUV simulator. The computational results from the proposed simulator agree well with those from both the ISiMI AUV experiments and the Euler-angle based simulations. Additionally, a new maneuvering procedure, namely “put-out” was implemented to test directional stability for a large-scale AUV in the proposed AUV simulator that can be considered for vehicles in space as well as in constrained planes.
Evaluation of Stress Intensity Factors for Multiple Cracked Circular Disks Under Crack Surface Tractions with SBFEM
LIU Jun-yu, LIN Gao, LI Xiao-chuan, XU Feng-lin
2013, (3): 417-426.
Stress intensity factors (SIFs) for the cracked circular disks under different distributing surface tractions are evaluated with the scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM). In the SBFEM, the analytical advantage of the solution in the radial direction allows SIFs to be directly determined from its definition, therefore no special crack-tip treatment is necessary. Furthermore anisotropic material behavior can be treated easily. Different distributions of surface tractions are considered for the center and double-edge-cracked disks. The benchmark examples are modeled and an excellent agreement between the results in the present study and those in published literature is found. It shows that SBFEM is effective and possesses high accuracy. The SIFs of the cracked orthotropic material circular disks subjected to different surface tractions are also evaluated. The technique of substructure is applied to handle the multiple cracks problem.

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