ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2013 Vol.(4)

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Theoretical Assessment of Burst Failure of Internally Pressurized Defect-Free Pipelines with Plastic Anisotropy
ZHANG Yong-qiang, WANG Li-zhong, JIN Wei-liang
2013, (4): 427-436.
In the framework of finite deformation theory, the burst failure analysis of end-opened defect-free pipes with plastic anisotropy under internal pressure is carried out. The analytical solutions of burst pressure and the corresponding equivalent stress and strain are obtained for thin-walled pipes, which can take into account the effects of material plastic anisotropy and strain hardening exponent. The influences of plastic anisotropy on the burst pressure and the corresponding equivalent stress and strain are discussed. It is shown that the burst pressure and the corresponding equivalent stress and strain are dependent upon the plastic anisotropy of material, and the degree of dependence is related to the strain hardening exponent of material. In addition, the effects of the strain hardening exponent on burst failure are investigated.
Wave Radiation and Diffraction by A Two-Dimensional Floating Body with An Opening Near A Side Wall
ZHANG Hong-sheng, ZHOU Hua-wei
2013, (4): 437-450.
The radiation and diffraction problem of a two-dimensional rectangular body with an opening floating on a semi- infinite fluid domain of finite water depth is analysed based on the linearized velocity potential theory through an analytical solution procedure. The expressions for potentials are obtained by the method of variation separation, in which the unknown coefficients are determined by the boundary condition and matching requirement on the interface. The effects of the position of the hole and the gap between the body and side wall on hydrodynamic characteristics are investigated. Some resonance is observed like piston motion in a moon pool and sloshing in a closed tank because of the existence of restricted fluid domains.
Hydrodynamic Performance of Vertical Porous Structures Under Regular Waves
A. S. Koraim, O. S. Rageh
2013, (4): 451-468.
The hydrodynamic efficiency of the vertical porous structures is investigated under regular waves by use of physical models. The hydrodynamic efficiency of the breakwater is presented in terms of the wave transmission (kt), reflection (kr) and energy dissipation (kd) coefficients. Different wave and structural parameters affecting the breakwater efficiency are tested. It is found that, the transmission coefficient (kt) decreases with the increase of the relative water depth (h/L), the wave steepness (Hi/L), the relative breakwater widths (B/L, B/h), the relative breakwater height (D/h), and the breakwater porosity (n). The reflection coefficient (kr) takes the opposite trend of kt when D/h=1.25 and it decreases with the increasing h/L, Hi/L and B/L when D/h?1.0. The dissipation coefficient (kd) increases with the increasing h/L, Hi/L and B/L when D/h?1.0 and it decreases when D/h=1.25. In which, it is possible to achieve values of kt smaller than 0.3, kr larger than 0.5, and kd larger than 0.6 when D/h=1.25, B/h=0.6, h/L?0.22, B/L?0.13, and Hi/L ?0.04. Empirical equations are developed for the estimation of the transmission and reflection coefficients. The results of these equations are compared with other experimental and theoretical results and a reasonable agreement is obtained.
Portable Dynamic Positioning Control System on A Barge in Short-Crested Waves Using the Neural Network Algorithm
FANG Ming-chung, LEE Zi-yi
2013, (4): 469-480.
This paper develops a nonlinear mathematical model to simulate the dynamic motion behavior of the barge equipped with the portable outboard Dynamic Positioning (DP) system in short-crested waves. The self-tuning Proportional- Derivative (PD) controller based on the neural network algorithm is applied to control the thrusters for optimal adjustment of the barge position in waves. In addition to the wave, the current, the wind and the nonlinear drift force are also considered in the calculations. The time domain simulations for the six-degree-of-freedom motions of the barge with the DP system are solved by the 4th order Runge-Kutta method which can compromise the efficiency and the accuracy of the simulations. The technique of the portable alternative DP system developed here can serve as a practical tool to assist those ships without being equipped with the DP facility while the dynamic positioning missions are needed.
A Coupled Soil-Fluid-Structure Simulation of the Near-Field Earthquake Effects on Gravity Type Quay-Walls
M. Zeinoddini, H. Matin Nikoo, F. Ahmadpour
2013, (4): 481-494.
This study focuses on non-linear seismic response of concrete gravity quay-wall structures subjected to near-fault ground motions, a subject which seems not to have received much attention in the literature. A two-dimensional coupled fluid-structure-soil finite element modelling is employed to obtain the quay-wall response. The seawater medium is represented by acoustic type, potential based fluid elements. The elasto-plastic behavior of the soil medium is idealized using Drucker-Prager yield criterion based on associated flow rule assumption. Four nodded plane strain elements are used to model the concrete wall, foundation, subsoil, backfill and seabed zones. Fluid Structure Interface (FSI) elements are considered between the seawater interfaces with the quay-wall and the seabed. Frictional contact elements are employed between the wall and soil interfaces. The numerical model is validated using field measurements available for permanent drifts in a quay-wall damaged during Kobe earthquake. Reasonable agreements are obtained between the model predictions and the field measurements. Non-linear seismic analyses of the selected quay-wall subjected to both near-fault and far-fault ground motions are performed. An incremental dynamic analysis approach (IDA) is used. In general, at least for models examined in the current study, the gravity quay-walls are found to be more vulnerable to near-field, in comparison with the corresponding far-field, earthquakes.
Stress Relaxation of Grouted Entirely Large Diameter B-GFRP Soil Nail
LI Guo-wei, NI Chun, PEI Hua-fu, GE Wan-ming, NG Charles Wang Wai
2013, (4): 495-508.
One of the potential solutions to steel-corrosion-related problems is the usage of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) as a replacement of steel bars. In the past few decades, researchers have conducted a large number of experimental and theoretical studies on the behavior of small size glass fiber reinforce polymer (GFRP) bars (diameter smaller than 20 mm). However, the behavior of large size GFRP bar is still not well understood. Particularly, few studies were conducted on the stress relaxation of grouted entirely large diameter GFRP soil nail. This paper investigates the effect of stress levels on the relaxation behavior of GFRP soil nail under sustained deformation ranging from 30% to 60% of its ultimate strain. In order to study the behavior of stress relaxation, two B-GFRP soil nail element specimens were developed and instrumented with fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors which were used to measure strains along the B-GFRP bars. The test results reveal that the behavior of stress relaxation of B-GFRP soil nail element subjected to pre-stress is significantly related to the elapsed time and the initial stress of relaxation procedure. The newly proposed model for evaluating stress relaxation ratio can substantially reflect the influences of the nature of B-GFRP bar and the property of grip body. The strain on the nail body can be redistributed automatically. Modulus reduction is not the single reason for the stress degradation.
A New Efficient Finite Volume Modeling of Small Amplitude Free Surface Flows with Unstructured Grid
Lü Biao
2013, (4): 509-522.
A staggered finite-volume technique for non-hydrostatic, small amplitude free surface flow governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is presented there is a proper balance between accuracy and computing time. The advection and horizontal diffusion terms in the momentum equation are discretized by an integral interpolation method on the orthogonal unstructured staggered mesh and, while it has the attractive property of being conservative. The pressure-correction algorithm is employed for the non-hydrostatic pressure in order to achieve second-order temporal accuracy. A conservative scalar transport algorithm is also applied to discretize equations in this model. The eddy viscosity is calculated from the turbulent model. The resulting model is mass and momentum conservative. The model is verified by two examples to simulate unsteady small amplitude free surface flows where non-hydrostatic pressures have a considerable effect on the velocity field,and then applied to simulate the tidal flow in the Bohai Sea.
A Comparative Experimental Study on the Blast-Resistant Performances of Single and Multi-Layered Thin Plates Under Close-Range Airblast Loading
CHEN Chang-hai, ZHU Xi, ZHANG Li-jun, HOU Hai-liang, SHEN Xiao-le, TANG Ting
2013, (4): 523-535.
The performance of multilayered thin steel plates subjected to close-range air blasts has been experimentally studied and compared with that of monolithic plates made of the same material and having equal mass. In present experiments, multilayered plates are in-contact four-layered thin steel plates and two types of deformation/failure modes were observed for them. Comparisons concerning deformation/failure modes, strain distributions and energy absorptions between the multilayered plate and its monolithic counterpart were conducted. It is found that the multilayered plate is much superior to its monolithic counterpart in the ability to deform against blast loading. Furthermore, under intense airblast loading, the multilayered plate can not only absorb much more energy but also effectively reduce the secondary destruction ability of structural fragments in comparison with its monolithic counterpart.
A Conscientious Investigation into the Effect of Re and Mass-Ratio on Two-Degree-of-Freedom Vortex-Induced Vibrations
MA Wen-liang, ZHANG Jian-hua
2013, (4): 537-548.
Through a serious application of an overlapping mesh, vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of low-mass-rationale cylinders was computed in the range of 1.0×103
Detection of Breaking Waves Using X-Band Pulse Radar in the Nearshore Region
Y. C. Lin, C. C. Chang, M. C. Lee, H. C. Chan, J. M. Leu
2013, (4): 549-556.
An X-band pulsed Doppler microwave radar has been used to determine the characteristics of breaking waves. Field experiments were conducted at the Shuang-Si estuary in the north of Taiwan in the winter of 2005. Analyses on maxima radar cross section and Doppler frequency shift are done to characterize wave breaking zones. Based on observations of breaking waves, the wave breaking zones are shown to be located at water depths of 1.8 to 2.2 m in the experimental site. In general, the results indicate that a radar system has the potential to delineate the spatial variation of breaking waves clearly and that this is sufficient to achieve a measurement operation for near-shore air-sea interaction events.
Disintegration of Linear Edge Waves
WANG Gang, Viet Thanh Nguyena, ZHENG Jin-hai, DONG Guo-hai, MA Xiao-zhou, MA Yu-xiang
2013, (4): 557-562.
It is demonstrated that offshore wavenumbers of edge waves change from imaginary wavenumbers in deep water to real wavenumbers in shallow water. This finding indicates that edge waves in the offshore direction exist as evanescent waves in deep water and as propagating waves in shallow water. Since evanescent waves can stably exist in a limited region while propagating waves cannot, energy should be released from nearshore regions. In the present study, the instability region is predicted based on both the full water wave solution and the shallow-water wave approximation.

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