ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2013 Vol.(6)

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Tests and Applications of An Approach to Absorbing Reflected Waves Towards Incident Boundary
ZHANG Hong-sheng, WANG Yan, XU Chun-Hui, SHANG Hui, YU Xiao-wei
2013, (6): 703-718.
If the upstream boundary conditions are prescribed based on the incident wave only, the time-dependent numerical models cannot effectively simulate the wave field when the physical or spurious reflected waves become significant. This paper describes carefully an approach to specifying the incident wave boundary conditions combined with a set sponge layer to absorb the reflected waves towards the incident boundary. Incorporated into a time-dependent numerical model, whose governing equations are the Boussinesq-type ones, the effectiveness of the approach is studied in detail. The general boundary conditions, describing the down-wave boundary conditions are also generalized to the case of random waves. The numerical model is in detail examined. The test cases include both the normal one-dimensional incident regular or random waves and the two-dimensional oblique incident regular waves. The calculated results show that the present approach is effective on damping the reflected waves towards the incident wave boundary.
A CIP-Based Numerical Simulation of Free Surface Flow Related to Freak Waves
ZHAO Xi-zeng
2013, (6): 719-736.
An enhanced numerical model for simulating two-dimensional incompressible viscous flow with distorted free surface is reported. The numerical simulation is carried out through the CIP (Constrained Interpolation Profile)-based method, which is described in the paper. A more accurate interface capturing scheme, the VOF/WLIC scheme (VOF: Volume-of-Fluid; WLIC: weighed line interface calculation), is adopted as the interface capturing method. To assess the developed algorithm and its versatility, a selection of test problems are examined, i.e. the square wave propagation, the Zalesak’s rigid body rotation, dam breaking problem with and without obstacles, wave sloshing in an excited wave tank and interaction between extreme waves and a floating body. Excellent agreements are obtained when numerical results are compared with available analytical, experimental, and other numerical results. These examples demonstrate that the use of the VOF/WLIC scheme in the free surface capturing makes better results and also the proposed CIP-based model is capable of predicting the freak wave-related phenomena.
Theoretical and Experimental Study of Breaking Wave on Sloping Bottoms
YANG Kuei-Sen, CHEN Yang-Yih, LI Meng-Syue, HSU Hung-Chu
2013, (6): 737-750.
This paper studies the continuous evolution of breaking wave for the surface water waves propagating on a sloping beach. A Lagrangian asymptotic solution is derived. According to the solution coupled with the wave breaking criteria and the equations of water particles motion, the wave deformation and the continuous wave breaking processes for the progressive water waves propagating on a sloping bottom can be derived. A series of experiments are also conducted to compare with the theoretical solution. The results show that the present solution can reasonably describe the plunging or spilling wave breaking phenomenon.
A Singular Perturbation Method for Parametric Investigation on J-lay Installation of Deepwater Pipelines
WANG Qin, DUAN Meng-lan, LI Hai-ming, ZHANG Qing-yuan
2013, (6): 751-766.
The maximum bending moment or curvature in the neighborhood of the touch down point (TDP) and the maximum tension at the top are two key parameters to be controlled during deepwater J-lay installation in order to ensure the safety of the pipe-laying operation and the normal operation of the pipelines. In this paper, the non-linear governing differential equation for getting the two parameters during J-lay installation is proposed and solved by use of singular perturbation technique, from which the asymptotic expression of stiffened catenary is obtained and the theoretical expression of its static geometric configuration as well as axial tension and bending moment is derived. Finite element results are applied to verify this method. Parametric investigation is conducted to analyze the influences of the seabed slope, unit weight, flexural stiffness, water depth, and the pipe-laying tower angle on the maximum tension and moment of pipeline by this method, and the results show how to control the installation process by changing individual parameters.
Hydrodynamic Effect of the Regulation Project of Yangtze River Deepwater Channel Downstream of Nanjing
YANG Dong-li, DOU XI-ping, ZHANG Xin-zhou, LUO Xiao-feng
2013, (6): 767-779.
A two-dimensional flow numerical model of the tidal reaches, which total length is more than 700 km, is established from Datong to the Yangtze River estuary. The tidal levels, velocities, diversion ratios and dynamic axes before and after the separate regulation of each reach and combined regulation of all reaches are obtained. The comparative analysis shows that the regulation project of a separate reach basically has no impact on velocity distributions and variations of diversion ratios of upper and lower reaches, the variations of dynamic axes are only within the local scope of the project. The regulation project of a separate reach also has less impact on the water level in the lower adjacent reaches, but will make the water levels in the upper reaches rise. After the implementation of the regulation projects for all reaches, the rise of water level in the upstream reaches will have a cumulative impact.
A Siltation Simulation and Desiltation Measurement Study Downstream of the Suzhou Creek Sluice, China
JI Yong-xing, YANG Fei, ZHANG Han-yun, LU Yong-jin
2013, (6): 781-793.
The Suzhou Creek Sluice is currently the largest underwater plain gate in the world, with a single span of 100 m. It is located in a tidal estuary at the junction of the Huangpu River and Suzhou Creek in Shanghai, China. In this study, physical and 2D vertical mathematical models were used to investigate and distinguish the mechanism of siltation downstream of an underwater plain gate from that of other gates types. According to quantitative data obtained by site investigation and the application of the physical hydrodynamic models, it was found that the characteristics of the tidal estuary as well as the fact that the sluice span is equal to the creek width are the major reasons contributing to siltation. A possible desiltation treatment system is proposed for the underwater plain gate. The system includes selection of a suitable location that allows the determination of a reasonable top elevation of the sluice floor, reserving sufficient space under the gate to accommodate siltation, setting up a mechanical desiltation system, and flushing silt along with overflow over the top of the gate. Furthermore, on-site hydraulic silt flushing experiments and a topography survey were conducted. These results showed that the measurement system is effective, and by maintaining this scheduled operation once a month, the downstream riverbed has been maintained in a good condition.
Effects of the Anthropogenic Activities on the Morphological Evolution of the Modaomen Estuary, Pearl River Delta, China
JIA Liang-wen, PAN Shun-qi, WU Chao-yu
2013, (6): 795-808.
Owing to the intensive human activities, the Modaomen Estuary has been significantly modified since 1950s, which has resulted in considerable changes of hydrodynamics and morphodynamics in the area. In this paper, the effects of the anthropogenic activities on the hydrodynamics and morphological evolution in the estuary at different stages are systematically assessed based on the detailed bathymetric data and field survey. The results show that the human activities have caused the channelization of the enclosed sea area in the Modamen Estuary; fast seaward movement of the mouth bar with high siltation; expansion of the channel volume due to channel deepening. The paper also highlights the main hydrodynamic changes in the estuary, including the rise of the water level; the distinguishing changes of tidal range before and after the 1990s (decrease and increase respectively); as well as the increase of the divided flow ratio. It is found that reclamation is the main factor promoting the transition of nature of the estuary from runoff dominant to runoff and wave dominant, and sand mining activities are mainly to strengthen the tidal dynamic and to low the water level. The results provide useful guidance for better planning of the future developments in the estuary and further research in the area.
Wave Period Distributions in Non-Gaussian Mixed Sea States
WANG Ying-guang
2013, (6): 809-820.
The wave period probability densities in non-Gaussian mixed sea states are calculated by utilizing a transformed Gaussian process method. The transformation relating the non-Gaussian process and the original Gaussian process is obtained based on the equivalence of the level up-crossing rates of the two processes. A saddle point approximation procedure is applied for calculating the level up-crossing rates in this study. The accuracy and efficiency of the transformed Gaussian process method are validated by comparing the results predicted by using the method with those predicted by the Monte Carlo simulation method.
Flow Field Analysis of Submerged Horizontal Plate Type Breakwater
ZHANG Zhi-qiang, LUAN Mao-tian, WANG Ke
2013, (6): 821-828.
Submerged horizontal plate can be considered as a new concept breakwater. In order to reveal the wave elimination mechanism of this type breakwater, boundary element method is utilized to investigate the velocity field around plate carefully. The flow field analysis shows that the interaction between incident wave and reverse flow caused by submerged plate will lead to the formation of wave elimination area around both sides of the plate. The velocity magnitude of flow field has been reduced and this is the main reason of wave elimination.
Hydrodynamic Characteristics and Sediment Transport of A Tidal River Under Influence of Wading Engineering Groups
CHEN Jun, TANG Hong-wu, XIAO Yang, JI Min
2013, (6): 829-842.
By taking the Yong River for example in this paper, based on the multiple measured data during 1957 to 2009, the change process of runoff, tide feature, tidal wave, tidal influx and sediment transport are analyzed. Then a mathematical model is used to reveal the influence mechanism on hydrodynamic characteristics and sediment transport of the wading engineering groups such as a tide gate, a breakwater, reservoirs, bridges and wharves, which were built in different periods. The results showed the hydrodynamic characteristics and sediment transport of the Yong River changed obviously due to the wading engineering groups. The tide gate induced deformation of the tidal wave, obvious reduction of the tidal influx and weakness of the tidal dynamic, decrease of the sediment yield of flood and ebb tide and channel deposition. The breakwater blocked estuarine entrances, resulting in the change of the tidal current and the reduction of the tidal influx in the estuarine area. The large-scale reservoirs gradually made the decrease of the Yong River runoff. The bridge and wharf groups took up cross-section areas, the cumulative affection of which caused the increase of tidal level in the tidal river.

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