ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2014 Vol.(1)

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An Improved Coupling of Numerical and Physical Models for Simulating Wave Propagation
YANG Zhi-wen, LIU Shu-xue, LI Jin-xuan
2014, (1): 1-16.
An improved coupling of numerical and physical models for simulating 2D wave propagation is developed in this paper. In the proposed model, an unstructured finite element model (FEM) based Boussinesq equations is applied for the numerical wave simulation, and a 2D piston-type wavemaker is used for the physical wave generation. An innovative scheme combining fourth-order Lagrange interpolation and Runge-Kutta scheme is described for solving the coupling equation. A Transfer function modulation method is presented to minimize the errors induced from the hydrodynamic invalidity of the coupling model and/or the mechanical capability of the wavemaker in area where nonlinearities or dispersion predominate. The overall performance and applicability of the coupling model has been experimentally validated by accounting for both regular and irregular waves and varying bathymetry. Experimental results show that the proposed numerical scheme and transfer function modulation method are efficient for the data transfer from the numerical model to the physical model up to a deterministic level.
The Effect of the Propeller Jet on Pile Groups
Kubilay Cihan
2014, (1): 17-30.
The objective of this study is to determine the effect of jet propeller on the damage of berthing structures combined of armoured slope with pile groups. For this purpose, scour measurements were performed for four types berthing structures, which were armoured slope with tandem arrangements of piles for two and three piles and with side by side arrangements of piles for two and three piles. The effect of gap between piles on damage was investigated. The damage level induced by propeller jet between piles was determined. The gaps were 1, 2, 3, and 4 times the pile diameter. Three different values of Rpm (690, 820, and 950) were chosen for the tests. The diameter of circular piles is 40 mm. The slope ratio was 1/3 and the diameter of propeller was 10 cm.
Modeling and Simulation of Supercavity with Inertial Force in the Horizontal Curvilinear Motion
ZOU Wang, YU Kai-ping, R. E. A. Arndt, ZHANG Guang
2014, (1): 31-42.
To make a curvilinear motion in the horizontal plane is one of the most contents for realizing the maneuverability of the supercavitating vehicle. It is significant to achieve the controllability and maneuverability of the vehicle in three dimensions both theoretically and practically on research. Models of angle of attack, gravity and inertial force effects on the supercavity in the horizontal curvilinear motion are established, respectively. The supercavity is simulated based on these models in combination with Logvinovich model and the unsteady gas-leakage rate model at the given ventilation rate, and the effect of the inertial force on it is analyzed numerically. Results show that the maximum deviation of the center line of the cross section of supercavity towards the outward normal direction of its trajectory increases as the cavitation number or curvature radius decrease and always occur in the tail because of the increase of inertial effects along the axis of supercavity from the cavitator when other models and flow parameters are constant for the given trajectory curvature. For the variable curvature, the supercavity sheds due to its instability caused by the time-varying angle of attack. The deviation increases along the length of supercavity if the curvature remains the same sign.
Numerical Simulation of Dynamic Response of A Net Cage for Flatfish in Waves
GUI Fu-kun, ZHAO Yun-peng, XU Tiao-jian, GUAN Chang-tao
2014, (1): 43-56.
A numerical model of flatfish cage is built based on the lumped mass method and the principle of rigid body kinematics. To validate the numerical model, a series of physical model tests are conducted in the wave flume. The numerical results correspond well with the data sets from physical model test. The effect of weight of bottom frame, height of fish net and net shape on motion responses of fish cage and tension force on mooring lines is then analyzed. The results indicate that the vertical displacements of float collar and bottom frame decrease with the increase in the weight of bottom frame; the maximum tension force on mooring lines increases with the increasing weight of bottom frame. The inclination angles of float collar and bottom frame decrease with the increasing net height; the maximum tension force increases obviously with the increase of net height.
Laboratory Generation of Solitary Waves: An Inversion Technique to Improve Available Methods
A. Romano, M. Guerrini, G. Bellotti, JU Lie-hong
2014, (1): 57-66.
Solitary waves are often used in laboratory experiments to study tsunamis propagation and interaction with coasts. However, the experimental shape of the waves may differ from the theoretical one. In this paper, a correction technique aiming at minimizing the discrepancies between the two profiles is presented. Laboratory experiments reveal their effectiveness in correcting the experimental shape of solitary waves, mainly for low nonlinearities.
Optimal Design of Equivalent Water Depth Truncated Mooring System Based on Baton Pattern Simulated Annealing Algorithm
ZHANG Huo-ming, HUANG Sai-hua, GUAN Wei-bing
2014, (1): 67-80.
The highest similarity degree of static characteristics including both horizontal and vertical restoring force- displacement characteristics of total mooring system, as well as the tension-displacement characteristics of the representative single mooring line between the truncated and full ?depth system are obtained by annealing simulation algorithm for hybrid discrete variables (ASFHDV, in short). A “baton” optimization approach is proposed by utilizing ASFHDV. After each baton of optimization, if a few dimensional variables reach the upper or lower limit, the boundary of certain dimensional variables shall be expanded. In consideration of the experimental requirements, the length of the upper mooring line should not be smaller than 8 m, and the diameter of the anchor chain on the bottom should be larger than 0.03 m. A 100000 t turret mooring FPSO in the water depth of 304 m, with the truncated water depth being 76 m, is taken as an example of equivalent water depth truncated mooring system optimal design and calculation, and is performed to obtain the conformation parameters of the truncated mooring system. The numerical results indicate that the present truncated mooring system design is successful and effective.
Cross-Flow VIV-Induced Fatigue Damage of Deepwater Steel Catenary Riser at Touch-Down Point
WANG Kun-peng, TANG Wen-yong, XUE Hong-xiang
2014, (1): 81-93.
A prediction model of the deepwater steel catenary riser VIV is proposed based on the forced oscillation test data, taking into account the riser-seafloor interaction for the cross-flow VIV-induced fatigue damage at touch-down point (TDP). The model will give more reasonable simulation of SCR response near TDP than the previous pinned truncation model. In the present model, the hysteretic riser-soil interaction model is simplified as the linear spring and damper to simulate the seafloor, and the damping is obtained according to the dissipative power during one periodic riser-soil interaction. In order to validate the model, the comparison with the field measurement and the results predicted by Shear 7 program of a full-scale steel catenary riser is carried out. The main induced modes, mode frequencies and response amplitude are in a good agreement. Furthermore, the parametric studies are carried out to broaden the understanding of the fatigue damage sensitivity to the upper end in-plane offset and seabed characteristics. In addition, the fatigue stress comparison at TDP between the truncation riser model and the present full riser model shows that the existence of touch-down zones is very important for the fatigue damage assessment of steel catenary riser at TDP.
Research on the Unsteady Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Vertical Axis Tidal Turbine
ZHANG Xue-wei, ZHANG Liang, WANG Feng, ZHAO Dong-ya, PANG Cheng-yan
2014, (1): 95-103.
The unsteady hydrodynamic characteristics of vertical axis tidal turbine are investigated by numerical simulation based on viscous CFD method. The starting mechanism of the turbine is revealed through analyzing the interaction of its motion and dynamics during starting process. The operating hydrodynamic characteristics of the turbine in wave-current condition are also explored by combining with the linear wave theory. According to possible magnification of the cyclic loads in the maximum power tracking control of vertical axis turbine, a novel torque control strategy is put forward, which can improve the structural characteristics significantly without effecting energy efficiency.
Research on Energy Conversion System of Floating Wave Energy Converter
ZHANG Ya-qun, SHENG Song-wei, YOU Ya-ge, WU Bi-jun, LIU Yang
2014, (1): 105-113.
A wave power device includes an energy harvesting system and a power take-off system. The power take-off system of a floating wave energy device is the key that converts wave energy into other forms. A set of hydraulic power take-off system, which suits for the floating wave energy devices, includes hydraulic system and power generation system. The hydraulic control system uses a special “self-hydraulic control system” to control hydraulic system to release or save energy under the maximum and the minimum pressures. The maximum pressure is enhanced to 23 MPa, the minimum to 9 MPa. Quite a few experiments show that the recent hydraulic system is evidently improved in efficiency and reliability than our previous one, that is expected to be great significant in the research and development of our prototype about wave energy conversion.
Uplift of Symmetrical Anchor Plates by Using Grid-Fixed Reinforced Reinforcement in Cohesionless Soil
Hamed Niroumand, Khairul Anuar Kassim
2014, (1): 115-126.
Uplift response of symmetrical anchor plates with and without grid fixed reinforced (GFR) reinforcement was evaluated in model tests and numerical simulations by Plaxis. Many variations of reinforcement layers were used to reinforce the sandy soil over symmetrical anchor plates. In the current research, different factors such as relative density of sand, embedment ratios, and various GFR parameters including size, number of layers, and the proximity of the layer to the symmetrical anchor plate were investigated in a scale model. The failure mechanism and the associated rupture surface were observed and evaluated. GFR, a tied up system made of fiber reinforcement polymer (FRP) strips and end balls, was connected to the geosynthetic material and anchored into the soil. Test results showed that using GFR reinforcement significantly improved the uplift capacity of anchor plates. It was found that the inclusion of one layer of GFR, which rested directly on the top of the anchor plate, was more effective in enhancing the anchor capacity itself than other methods. It was found that by including GFR the uplift response was improved by 29%. Multi layers of GFR proved more effective in enhancing the uplift capacity than a single GFR reinforcement. This is due to the additional anchorage provided by the GFR at each level of reinforcement. In general, the results show that the uplift capacity of symmetrical anchor plates in loose and dense sand can be significantly increased by the inclusion of GFR. It was also observed that the inclusion of GFR reduced the requirement for a large L/D ratio to achieve the required uplift capacity. The laboratory and numerical analysis results are found to be in agreement in terms of breakout factor and failure mechanism pattern.
Discussion on Key Points of Wind Load of Jack-up Unit
LIN Yi, HU An-kang, XIONG Fei, JIANG Wei
2014, (1): 127-138.
The anti-overturning ability and structure safety of jack-up unit in in-place condition are often affected by environment loads, especially wind load. According to the MODU rule, the projected area method is used for calculating the wind load. However, the calculated results are conservative and not good for structure optimization design. In this paper, a 400 ft jack-up is studied as an example. Based on the wind tunnel test and numerical simulation method, some key points of wind load calculation, such as shielding effect, lift effect and shape coefficient of component, are discussed. The study shows that the points mentioned above, which are ignored in the MODU rule calculation, result in the conservative result.
Bearing Capacity and Critical Punch-Through Depth of Spudcan on Sand Overlying Clay
LIU Jun, YU Long, ZHOU Hui, KONG Xian-jing
2014, (1): 139-147.
Spudcan may experience punch-through failure on strong over weak layered soils, such as sand overlying clay. A large deformation finite element method (LDFE) is used to simulate the penetration process of spudcan into sand overlying clay. The sand is simulated by smoothed hyperbolic Mohr-Coulomb model, and the clay is simulated by a simple elasto-plastic model which obeys Tresca yield criterion. According to the LDFE results of a large amount of cases, the effects of the strength, unit weight and thickness of the top sand layer, as well as the effect of the strength of the underlying clay on the spudcan punch-through behavior, are investigated. The critical depth occurring punch-through and the critical bearing capacity are presented in charts. Fitting equations to calculate the critical punch-through depth and the critical bearing capacity are proposed for the convenience of engineering practice.

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