ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2014 Vol.(3)

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Experimental Study on Bubble Pulse Features Under the Combined Action of Horizontal and Vertical Walls
WANG Shi-ping, CHU Wen-hua, ZHANG A-man
2014, (3): 293-301.
The pulse features of a bubble have a close connection with the boundary condition. When a bubble moves near a rigid wall, it will be attracted by the Bjerknes force of the wall, and a jet pointing at the wall will be generated. In real application, the bubble may move under the combined action of walls in different directions when it forms at the corner of a pipe or at the bottom of a dam. The motion of the bubble shows complex and nonlinear characteristics under these conditions. In order to investigate the bubble pulse features near complex walls, a horizontal wall and a vertical wall are put into the experimental water tank synchronously, and an electric circuit with 200 voltages is designed to generate discharge bubbles, and then experimental study on the bubble pulse features under the combined action of horizontal and vertical walls is carried out. The influences of the combined action of two walls on the bubble shape, pulse period, moving trace and inside jet are obtained by changing the distances from bubble center to the two walls. It aims at providing references for the relevant theoretical and numerical research.
Scenarios of Local Tsunamis in the China Seas by Boussinesq Model
ZHAO Xi, LIU Hua, WANG Ben-long
2014, (3): 303-316.
The Okinawa Trench in the East China Sea and the Manila Trench in the South China Sea are considered to be the regions with high risk of potential tsunamis induced by submarine earthquakes. Tsunami waves will impact the southeast coast of China if tsunamis occur in these areas. In this paper, the horizontal two-dimensional Boussinesq model is used to simulate tsunami generation, propagation, and runup in a domain with complex geometrical boundaries. The temporary varying bottom boundary condition is adopted to describe the initial tsunami waves motivated by the submarine faults. The Indian Ocean tsunami is simulated by the numerical model as a validation case. The time series of water elevation and runup on the beach are compared with the measured data from field survey. The agreements indicate that the Boussinesq model can be used to simulate tsunamis and predict the waveform and runup. Then, the hypothetical tsunamis in the Okinawa Trench and the Manila Trench are simulated by the numerical model. The arrival time and maximum wave height near coastal cities are predicted by the model. It turns out that the leading depression N-wave occurs when the tsunami propagates in the continental shelf from the Okinawa Trench. The scenarios of the tsunami in the Manila Trench demonstrate significant effects on the coastal area around the South China Sea.
Wave Characteristics at the South Part of the Radial Sand Ridges of the Southern Yellow Sea
YANG Bin, FENG Wei-bing, ZHANG Yu
2014, (3): 317-330.
Based on one-year wave field data measured at the south part of the radial sand ridges of the Southern Yellow Sea, the wave statistical characteristics, wave spectrum and wave group properties are analyzed. The results show that the significant wave height (H1/3) varies from 0.15 to 2.22 m with the average of 0.59 m and the mean wave period (Tmean) varies from 2.06 to 6.82 s with the average of 3.71 s. The percentage of single peak in the wave spectra is 88.6 during the measurement period, in which 36.3% of the waves are pure wind waves and the rest are young swells. The percentage with the significant wave height larger than 1 m is 12.4. The dominant wave directions in the study area are WNW, W, ESE, E and NW. The relationships among the characteristic wave heights, the characteristic wave periods, and the wave spectral parameters are identified. It is found that the tentative spectral model is suitable for the quantitative description of the wave spectrum in the study area, while the run lengths of the wave group estimated from the measured data are generally larger than those in other sea areas.
Field Observation and Analysis of Wave-Current-Sediment Movement in Caofeidian Sea Area in the Bohai Bay, China
ZUO Li-qin, LU Yong-jun, WANG Ya-ping, LIU Huai-xiang
2014, (3): 331-348.
In order to study the mechanism of flow-sediment movement, it is essential to obtain measured data of water hydrodynamic and sediment concentration process with high spatial and temporal resolution in the bottom boundary layer (BBL). Field observations were carried out in the northwest Caofeidian sea area in the Bohai Bay. Near 2 m isobath (under the lowest tidal level), a tripod system was installed with AWAC (Acoustic Wave And Current), ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers), OBS-3A (Optical Backscatter Point Sensor), ADV (Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters), etc. The accurate measurement of the bottom boundary layer during a single tidal period was carried out, together with a long-term sediment concentration measurement under different hydrological conditions. All the measured data were used to analyze the characteristics of wave-current-sediment movement and the BBL. Analysis was performed on flow structure, shear stress, roughness, eddy viscosity and other parameters of the BBL. Two major findings were made. Firstly, from the measured data, the three-layer distribution model of the velocity profiles and eddy viscosities in the wave-current BBL are proposed in the observed sea area; secondly, the sediment movement is related closely to wind-waves in the muddy coast area where sediment is clayey silt: 1) The observed suspended sediment concentration under light wind conditions is very low, with the peak value generally smaller than 0.1 kg/m3 and the average value being 0.03 kg/m3; 2) The sediment concentration increases continuously under the gales over 6-7 in Beaufort scale, under a sustained wind action. The measured peak sediment concentration at 0.4 m above the seabed is 0.15-0.32 kg/m3, and the average sediment concentration during wind-wave action is 0.08-0.18 kg/m3, which is about 3-6 times the value under light wind conditions. The critical wave height signaling remarkable changes of sediment concentration is 0.5 m. The results show that the suspended load sediment concentration is mainly influenced by wave-induced sediment suspension.
Effect of Under Connected Plates on the Hydrodynamic Efficiency of the Floating Breakwater
A. S. Koraim, O. S. Rageh
2014, (3): 349-362.
In this paper, the hydrodynamic efficiency of a floating breakwater system is experimentally studied by use of physical models. Regular waves with wide ranges of wave heights and periods are tested. The efficiency of the breakwater is presented as a function of the wave transmission, reflection, and energy dissipation coefficients. Different parameters affecting the breakwater efficiency are investigated, e.g. the number of the under connected vertical plates, the length of the mooring wire, and the wave length. It is found that, the transmission coefficient kt decreases with the increase of the relative breakwater width B/L, the number of plates n and the relative wire length l/h, while the reflection coefficient kr takes the opposite trend. Therefore, it is possible to achieve kt values smaller than 0.25 and kr values larger than 0.80 when B/L is larger than 0.25 for the case of l/h=1.5 and n=4. In addition, empirical equations used for estimating the transmission and reflection coefficients are developed by using the dimensionless analysis, regression analysis and measured data and verified by different theoretical and experimental results.
Enhanced Multi-Layer Fatigue-Analysis Approach for Unbonded Flexible Risers
YANG He-zhen, JIANG Hao, YANG Qi
2014, (3): 363-379.
This paper proposes an enhanced approach for evaluating the fatigue life of each metallic layer of unbonded flexible risers. Owing to the complex structure of unbonded flexible risers and the nonlinearity of the system, particularly in the critical touchdown zone, the traditional method is insufficient for accurately evaluating the fatigue life of these risers. The main challenge lies in the transposition from global to local analyses, which is a key stage for the fatigue analysis of flexible pipes owing to their complex structure. The new enhanced approach derives a multi-layer stress-decomposition method to meet this challenge. In this study, a numerical model validated experimentally is used to demonstrate the accuracy of the stress-decomposition method. And a numerical case is studied to validate the proposed approach. The results demonstrate that the multi-layer stress-decomposition method is accurate, and the fatigue lives of the metallic layers predicted by the enhanced multi-layer analysis approach are rational. The proposed fatigue-analysis approach provides a practical and reasonable method for predicting fatigue life in the design of unbonded flexible risers.
Axial Vibration Analysis of the Mud Recovery Line on Deepwater Riserless Mud Recovery Drilling System
WANG Guo-dong, CHEN Guo-ming, XU Liang-bin, YIN Zhi-ming
2014, (3): 381-390.
The series connection of multistage pumping module is the common concept of deepwater riserless mud recovery drilling system. In this system, the influence of the mass of pumping module on the vibration of mud recovery line cannot be ignored, and the lumped mass method has been utilized to discretize the mud recovery line. Based on the analysis of different boundary conditions, the paper establishes the axial forced vibration model of the mud recovery line considering the seawater damping, and the vibration model analysis provides the universal solution to the vibration model. An example of the two-stage pumping system has been used to analyze the dynamic response of mud recovery line under different excited frequencies. This paper has the important directive significance for the application of riserless mud recovery drilling technology in deepwater surface drilling.
CSI Feedback-based CS for Underwater Acoustic Adaptive Modulation OFDM System with Channel Prediction
KUAI Xiao-yan, SUN Hai-xin, QI Jie, CHENG En, XU Xiao-ka, GUO Yu-hui, CHEN You-gan
2014, (3): 391-400.
In this paper, we investigate the performance of adaptive modulation (AM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system in underwater acoustic (UWA) communications. The aim is to solve the problem of large feedback overhead for channel state information (CSI) in every subcarrier. A novel CSI feedback scheme is proposed based on the theory of compressed sensing (CS). We propose a feedback from the receiver that only feedback the sparse channel parameters. Additionally, prediction of the channel state is proposed every several symbols to realize the AM in practice. We describe a linear channel prediction algorithm which is used in adaptive transmission. This system has been tested in the real underwater acoustic channel. The linear channel prediction makes the AM transmission techniques more feasible for acoustic channel communications. The simulation and experiment show that significant improvements can be obtained both in bit error rate (BER) and throughput in the AM scheme compared with the fixed Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulation scheme. Moreover, the performance with standard CS outperforms the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) method.
Blind Equalization Based on RLS Algorithm Using Adaptive Forgetting Factor for Underwater Acoustic Channel
XIAO Ying, YIN Fu-liang
2014, (3): 401-408.
Blind equalization based on adaptive forgetting factor, recursive least squares (RLS) with constant modulus algorithm (CMA), is investigated. The cost function of CMA is simplified to meet the second norm form to ensure the stability of RLS-CMA, and thus an improved RLS-CMA (RLS-SCMA) is established. To further improve its performance, a new adaptive forgetting factor RLS-SCMA (ARLS-SCMA) is proposed. In ARLS-SCMA, the forgetting factor varies with the output error of the blind equalizer during the iterative process, which leads to a faster convergence rate and a smaller steady-state error. The simulation results prove the effectiveness under the condition of the underwater acoustic channel.
Nozzle Optimization for Water Jet Propulsion with A Positive Displacement Pump
YANG You-sheng, XIE Ying-chun, NIE Song-lin
2014, (3): 409-419.
In the water jet propulsion system with a positive displacement (PD) pump, the nozzle, which converts pressure energy into kinetic energy, is one of the key parts exerting great influence on the reactive thrust and the efficiency of the system due to its high working pressure and easily occurring cavitation characteristics. Based on the previous studies of the energy loss and the pressure distribution of different nozzles, a model of water jet reactive thrust, which fully takes the energy loss and the nozzle parameters into consideration, is developed to optimize the nozzle design. Experiments and simulations are carried out to investigate the reactive thrust and the conversion efficiency of cylindrical nozzles, conical nozzles and optimized nozzles. The results show that the optimized nozzles have the largest reactive thrust and the highest energy conversion efficiency under the same inlet conditions. The related methods and conclusions are extended to the study of other applications of the water jet, such as water jet cutting, water mist fire suppression, water injection molding.
Numerical Prediction of Hydrodynamic Forces on A Ship Passing Through A Lock
WANG Hong-zhi, ZOU Zao-jian
2014, (3): 421-432.
While passing through a lock, a ship usually undergoes a steady forward motion at low speed. Owing to the size restriction of lock chamber, the shallow water and bank effects on the hydrodynamic forces acting on the ship may be remarkable, which may have an adverse effect on navigation safety. However, the complicated hydrodynamics is not yet fully understood. This paper focuses on the hydrodynamic forces acting on a ship passing through a lock. The unsteady viscous flow and hydrodynamic forces are calculated by applying an unsteady RANS code with a RNG k?ε turbulence model. User-defined function (UDF) is compiled to define the ship motion. Meanwhile, the grid regeneration is dealt with by using the dynamic mesh method and sliding interface technique. Numerical study is carried out for a bulk carrier ship passing through the Pierre Vandamme Lock in Zeebrugge at the model scale. The proposed method is validated by comparing the numerical results with the data of captive model tests. By analyzing the numerical results obtained at different speeds, water depths and eccentricities, the influences of speed, water depth and eccentricity on the hydrodynamic forces are illustrated. The numerical method proposed in this paper can qualitatively predict the ship-lock hydrodynamic interaction. It can provide certain guidance on the manoeuvring and control of ships passing through a lock.

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