ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2014 Vol.(4)

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Domain Decomposition and Matching for Time-Domain Analysis of Motions of Ships Advancing in Head Sea
TANG Kai, ZHU Renchuan, MIAO Guoping, FAN Ju
2014, (4): 433-444.
A domain decomposition and matching method in the time-domain is outlined for simulating the motions of ships advancing in waves. The flow field is decomposed into inner and outer domains by an imaginary control surface, and the Rankine source method is applied to the inner domain while the transient Green function method is used in the outer domain. Two initial boundary value problems are matched on the control surface. The corresponding numerical codes are developed, and the added masses, wave exciting forces and ship motions advancing in head sea for Series 60 ship and S175 containership, are presented and verified. A good agreement has been obtained when the numerical results are compared with the experimental data and other references. It shows that the present method is more efficient because of the panel discretization only in the inner domain during the numerical calculation, and good numerical stability is proved to avoid divergence problem regarding ships with flare.
Calculation and Experiment for Dynamic Response of Bridge in Deep Water Under Seismic Excitation
LIU Chunguang, SUN Guoshuai
2014, (4): 445-456.
The fluid-structure interaction under seismic excitation is very complicated, and thus the damage identification of the bridge in deep water is the key technique to ensure the safe service. Based on nonlinear Morison equation considering the added mass effect and the fluid-structure interaction effect, the effect of hydrodynamic pressure on the structure is analyzed. A series of underwater shaking table tests are conducted in the air and in water. The dynamic characteristics affected by hydrodynamic pressure are discussed and the distribution of hydrodynamic pressure is also analyzed. In addition, the damage of structure is distinguished through the natural frequency and the difference of modal curvature, and is then compared with the test results. The numerical simulation and test of this study indicate that the effect of hydrodynamic pressure on the structure should not be neglected. It is also found that the presence of the damage, the location of the damage and the degree of the severity can be judged through the variation of structure frequency and the difference of modal curvature.
A General Model for Analysis of Sound Radiation from Orthogonally Stiffened Laminated Composite Plates
JIN Yeqing, PANG Fuzhen, YANG Fei, LI Guangming
2014, (4): 457-470.
A general theoretical model is developed to investigate the sound radiation from an infinite orthogonally stiffened plate under point excitation force. The plate can be metallic or composite, and fluid loading is also considered in the research. The first order shear deformation theory is used to account for the transverse shear deformation. The motion of the equally spaced stiffeners is examined by considering their bending vibrations and torsional movements. Based on the periodic structure theory and the concepts of the equivalent dynamic flexibility of the plate, the generalized vibro-acoustic equation of the model is obtained by applying the Fourier transform method. The generalized model that can be solved numerically is validated by comparing model predictions with the existing results. Numerical calculations are performed to investigate the effects of the location of the excitation, the spacing of the stiffeners, the plate thickness, the strengthening form and the fiber orientation on the sound radiation characteristic of the orthogonally stiffened plate, and some practical conclusions are drawn from these parameter studies.
Nonlinear Optimization Method of Ship Floating Condition Calculation in Wave Based on Vector
DING Ning, YU Jianxing
2014, (4): 471-478.
Ship floating condition in regular waves is calculated. New equations controlling any ship’s floating condition are proposed by use of the vector operation. This form is a nonlinear optimization problem which can be solved using the penalty function method with constant coefficients. And the solving process is accelerated by dichotomy. During the solving process, the ship’s displacement and buoyant centre have been calculated by the integration of the ship surface according to the waterline. The ship surface is described using an accumulative chord length theory in order to determine the displacement, the buoyancy center and the waterline. The draught forming the waterline at each station can be found out by calculating the intersection of the ship surface and the wave surface. The results of an example indicate that this method is exact and efficient. It can calculate the ship floating condition in regular waves as well as simplify the calculation and improve the computational efficiency and the precision of results.
Risk Analysis and Assessment of Overtopping Concerning Sea Dikes in the Case of Storm Surge
WANG Liping, HUANG Guiling, CHEN Zhengshou, LIANG Bingchen, LIU Guilin
2014, (4): 479-487.
Risk analysis and assessment relating coastal structures has been one of the hot topics in the area of coastal protection recently. In this paper, from three aspects of joint return period of multiple loads, dike failure rate and dike continuous risk prevention respectively, three new risk analysis methods concerning overtopping of sea dikes are developed. It is worth noting that the factors of storm surge which leads to overtopping are also considered in the three methods. In order to verify and estimate the effectiveness and reliability of the newly developed methods, quantified mutual information is adopted. By means of case testing, it can be found that different prior variables might be selected dividedly, according to the requirement of special engineering application or the dominance of loads. Based on the selection of prior variables, the correlating risk analysis method can be successfully applied to practical engineering.
Laboratory Study of the Nonlinear Transformation of Irregular Waves over A Mild Slope
YU Bo, MA Yuxiang, MA Xiaozhou, DONG Guohai
2014, (4): 489-500.
This paper considers the nonlinear transformation of irregular waves propagating over a mild slope (1?40). Two cases of irregular waves, which are mechanically generated based on JONSWAP spectra, are used for this purpose. The results indicate that the wave heights obey the Rayleigh distribution at the offshore location; however, in the shoaling region, the heights of the largest waves are underestimated by the theoretical distributions. In the surf zone, the wave heights can be approximated by the composite Weibull distribution. In addition, the nonlinear phase coupling within the irregular waves is investigated by the wavelet-based bicoherence. The bicoherence spectra reflect that the number of frequency modes participating in the phase coupling increases with the decreasing water depth, as does the degree of phase coupling. After the incipient breaking, even though the degree of phase coupling decreases, a great number of higher harmonic wave modes are also involved in nonlinear interactions. Moreover, the summed bicoherence indicates that the frequency mode related to the strongest local nonlinear interactions shifts to higher harmonics with the decreasing water depth.
Determining the Onset and Strength of Unforced Wave Breaking in A Numerical Wave Tank
HE Hailun, SONG Jinbao
2014, (4): 501-509.
A numerical wave tank is used to investigate the onset and strength of unforced wave breaking, and the waves have three types of initial spectra: constant amplitude spectrum, constant steepness spectrum and Pierson-Moscowitz spectrum. Numerical tests are performed to validate the model results. Then, the onset of wave breaking is discussed with geometric, kinematic, and dynamic breaking criteria. The strength of wave breaking, which is always characterized by the fractional energy loss and breaking strength coefficient, is studied for different spectra. The results show how the energy growth rate is better than the initial wave steepness on estimating the fractional energy losses as well as breaking strength coefficient.
A New Method of Combination of Electroosmosis, Vacuum and Surcharge Preloading for Soft Ground Improvement
LIU Hanlong, CUI Yunliang, SHEN Yang, DING Xuanming
2014, (4): 511-528.
As a rapid and effective ground improvement method is urgently required for the booming land reclamation in China’s coastal area, this study proposes a new combined method of electroosmosis, vacuum preloading and surcharge preloading. A new type of electrical prefabricated vertical drain (ePVD) and a new electroosmotic drainage system are suggested to allow the application of the new method. This combined method is then field-tested and compared with the conventional vacuum combined with surcharge preloading method. The monitoring and foundation test results show that the new method induces a settlement 20% larger than that of the conventional vacuum combined with surcharge preloading method in the same treatment period, and saves approximately half of the treatment time compared with the vacuum combined with surcharge preloading method according to the finite element prediction of the settlement. The proposed method also increases the vane shear strength of the soil significantly. The bearing capacity of the ground improved by use of the new proposed method raises 118%. In comparison, there is only a 75% rise when using the vacuum combined with surcharge preloading method during the same reinforcement period. All results indicate that the proposed combined method is effective and suitable for reinforcing the soft clay ground. Besides, the voltage applied between the anode and cathode increases exponentially versus treatment time when the output current of power supplies is kept constant. Most of the voltage potential in electroosmosis is lost at electrodes, leaving smaller than 50% of the voltage to be effectively transmitted into the soil.
Low Complexity Adaptive Equalizers for Underwater Acoustic Communications
Masoumeh SOFLAEI, Paeiz AZMI
2014, (4): 529-540.
Interference signals due to scattering from surface and reflecting from bottom is one of the most important problems of reliable communications in shallow water channels. To solve this problem, one of the best suggested ways is to use adaptive equalizers. Convergence rate and misadjustment error in adaptive algorithms play important roles in adaptive equalizer performance. In this paper, affine projection algorithm (APA), selective regressor APA(SR-APA), family of selective partial update (SPU) algorithms, family of set-membership (SM) algorithms and selective partial update selective regressor APA (SPU-SR-APA) are compared with conventional algorithms such as the least mean square (LMS) in underwater acoustic communications. We apply experimental data from the Strait of Hormuz for demonstrating the efficiency of the proposed methods over shallow water channel. We observe that the values of the steady-state mean square error (MSE) of SR-APA, SPU-APA, SPU-normalized least mean square (SPU-NLMS), SPU-SR-APA, SM-APA and SM-NLMS algorithms decrease in comparison with the LMS algorithm. Also these algorithms have better convergence rates than LMS type algorithm.
Simulation of Vortex-Induced Vibrations of A Cylinder Using ANSYS CFX
Abu Bakar IZHAR, Arshad Hussain QURESHI, Shahab KHUSHNOOD
2014, (4): 541-556.
In this paper, vortex-induced vibrations of a cylinder are simulated by use of ANSYS CFX simulation code. The cylinder is treated as a rigid body and transverse displacements are obtained by use of a one degree of freedom spring damper system. 2-D as well as 3-D analysis is performed using air as the fluid. Reynolds number is varied from 40 to 16000 approx., covering the laminar and turbulent regimes of flow. The experimental results of (Khalak and Williamson, 1997) and other researchers are used for validation purposes. The results obtained are comparable.
Formulation of Reduction Rate for Ultimate Compressive Strength of Stiffened Panel Induced by Opening
YU Changli, LEE Joo-sung
2014, (4): 557-568.
The main objective of this study is to numerically investigate the characteristics of ultimate compressive strength of stiffened panels with opening and also to fit the design-oriented formulae. For this purpose, three series of well executed experimental data on longitudinally stiffened steel plates with and without opening subjected to the uniform axial in-pane load which is carried out to study the buckling and post-buckling up to the final failure are chosen. Also, a nonlinear finite element method capable of efficiently analyzing the large elasto-plastic deflection behavior of stiffened panels is developed and used for simulation. The feasibility of the present simulation process is confirmed by a good agreement with the experimental results. More case studies are developed employing the simulation process to analyze the influence of various design variables on the reduction rate of ultimate strength of stiffened panel induced by opening. Based on the computed results, two design formulae are fitted and the accuracy of design formulae is studied. Furthermore, the viability of the design formulae for practical engineering is proved.
Response of Skirted Suction Caissons to Monotonic Lateral Loading in Saturated Medium Sand
LI Dayong, ZHANG Yukun, FENG Lingyun, GUO Yanxue
2014, (4): 569-578.
Monotonic lateral load model tests were carried out on steel skirted suction caissons embedded in the saturated medium sand to study the bearing capacity. A three-dimensional continuum finite element model was developed with Z_SOIL software. The numerical model was calibrated against experimental results. Soil deformation and earth pressures on skirted caissons were investigated by using the finite element model to extend the model tests. It shows that the “skirted” structure can significantly increase the lateral capacity and limit the deflection, especially suitable for offshore wind turbines, compared with regular suction caissons without the “skirted” at the same load level. In addition, appropriate determination of rotation centers plays a crucial role in calculating the lateral capacity by using the analytical method. It was also found that the rotation center is related to dimensions of skirted suction caissons and loading process, i.e. the rotation center moves upwards with the increase of the “skirted” width and length; moreover, the rotation center moves downwards with the increase of loading and keeps constant when all the sand along the caisson’s wall yields. It is so complex that we cannot simply determine its position like the regular suction caisson commonly with a specified position to the length ratio of the caisson.

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