ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2014 Vol.(5)

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Probabilistic Distribution of the Maximum Wave Height
Dong Hyawn KIM, Taerim KIM
2014, (5): 579-586.
A new method of treating maximum wave height as a random variable in reliability analysis of breakwater caissons is proposed. The maximum wave height is expressed as the significant wave height multiplied by the so-called wave height ratio. The proposed wave height ratio is a type of transfer function from the significant wave height to the maximum wave height. Under the condition of a breaking wave, the ratio is intrinsically nonlinear. Therefore, the probability density function for the variable cannot be easily defined. In this study, however, it can be derived from the relationship between the maximum and significant waves in a nonbreaking environment. Some examples are shown to validate the derived probability density function for the wave ratio parameter. By introducing the wave height ratio into reliability analysis of caisson breakwater, the maximum wave height can be used as an independent and primary random variable, which means that the risk of caisson failure during its lifetime can be evaluated realistically.
Wall Effect of Underwater Explosion Load Based on Wave Motion Theories
XIAO Wei, YAO Xiong-liang, GUO Jun
2014, (5): 587-598.
Owing to the existence of the flow field boundary, the shock wave load near the boundary is different from the free field shock wave load. In the present paper, the hull plate load subjected to underwater shock wave is investigated based on wave motion theories; in addition, the experimental study of the hull plate load is carried out. According to the theoretical analysis of the hull plate pressure, we find that the hull plate pressure oscillates repeatedly and decays rapidly with time passing, the maximum hull plate pressure is 2/(1+n) times the maximum free field pressure, where n is the ratio of impedance, and the impulse is much smaller than the free field impulse. Compared with the experimental study, the theoretical results agree well with the experimental data.
Multi-Fault Diagnosis for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Based on Fuzzy Weighted Support Vector Domain Description
ZHANG Ming-jun, WU Juan, CHU Zhen-zhong
2014, (5): 599-616.
This paper addresses the multi-fault diagnosis problem of thrusters and sensors for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Traditional support vector domain description (SVDD) has low classification accuracy in the process of AUV multi-fault pattern classification because of the effect of sample sparse density and the uneven distribution of samples, and so on. Thus, a fuzzy weighted support vector domain description (FWSVDD) method based on positive and negative class samples is proposed. In this method, the negative class sample is introduced during classifier training, and the local density and the class weight are introduced for each sample. To improve the multi-fault pattern classifier training speed and fault diagnosis accuracy of FWSVDD, a multi-fault mode classification method based on a hierarchical strategy is proposed. This method adds fault contain detection surface for each thruster and sensor to isolate fault components during fault diagnosis. By considering the problem of pattern classification for a fuzzy sample, which may be located in the overlapping area of hyper-spheres or may not belong to any hyper-sphere in the process of multi-fault classification based on FWSVDD, a relative distance judgment method is given. The effectiveness of the proposed multi-fault diagnosis approach is demonstrated through water tank experiments with an experimental AUV prototype.
A Higher-Efficient Three-Dimensional Numerical Model for Small Amplitude Free Surface Flows
LV Biao
2014, (5): 617-628.
A higher-efficient three-dimensional non-hydrostatic model is developed to simulate small amplitude free surface flows based on a staggered unstructured grid. In this model, a fractional step algorithm is adopted to solve the Navier-Stokes equations in two major steps. A top-layer pressure method is proposed to minimize the number of vertical layers and subsequently the computational cost. Three classical examples of small amplitude free surface flows are used to demonstrate the capability and efficiency of the model. The satisfactory results demonstrated the capability and efficiency of modelling a range of small amplitude free surface flows with only a small number of vertical layers.
Consolidation and Creep Behaviors of Two Typical Marine Clays in China
JIANG Ming-jing, LIU Jing-de, YIN Zhen-yu
2014, (5): 629-644.
This paper presents an experimental investigation into the deformation characteristics of two typical marine clays obtained from Dalian and Shanghai, respectively, in China. Three kinds of laboratory tests, i.e. conventional oedometer tests, one-dimensional and triaxial creep tests were carried out. The results obtained from consolidation tests demonstrate linear e-logσv relationships for Shanghai clay at normally consolidated state, while partly or even global non-linear relationships for Dalian clay. The compression index Cc for both clays follows the correlation of Cc=0.009(wL-10) where wL is the liquid limit of soil. The relationship between logkv ( kv is the hydraulic conductivity of soil) and void ratio e is generally linear and the hydraulic conductivity change index Ckv can be described by their initial void ratio for both clays. The secondary compressibility of Dalian clay lies in medium to high range and is higher than that of Shanghai clay which lies in the range of low to medium. Furthermore, based on drained triaxial creep tests, the stress-strain-time relationships following Mesri’s creep equation have been developed for Dalian and Shanghai clays which can predict the long-term deformation of both clays reasonably well.
Analysis of EMD Algorithm for Identification and Extraction of An Acoustic Signal in Underwater Channel Against Wind Driven Ambient Noise
2014, (5): 645-657.
Sonar generated acoustic signals transmitted in underwater channel for distant communications are affected by numerous factors like ambient noise, making them nonlinear and non-stationary in nature. In recent years, the application of Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) technique to analyze nonlinear and non-stationary signals has gained much attention. It is an empirical approach to decompose a signal into a set of oscillatory modes known as intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). In general, Hilbert transform is used in EMD for the identification of oscillatory signals. In this paper a new EMD algorithm is proposed using FFT to identify and extract the acoustic signals available in the underwater channel that are corrupted due to various ambient noises over a range of 100 Hz to 10 kHz in a shallow water region. Data for analysis are collected at a depth of 5 m and 10 m offshore Chennai at the Bay of Bengal. The algorithm is validated for different sets of known and unknown reference signals. It is observed that the proposed EMD algorithm identifies and extracts the reference signals against various ambient noises. Significant SNR improvement is also achieved for underwater acoustic signals.
Strength Design Method for Tubing Hanger of Subsea Christmas Tree Against Big Temperature Difference
LUO Xiao-lan, GU Yu-hong, LIU Chang-ling, QIN Rui, ZHAO Hong-lin, DUAN Meng-lan
2014, (5): 659-670.
The tubing hanger is an important component of the subsea Christmas tree, experiencing big temperature difference which will lead to very high thermal stresses. On the basis of API 17D/ISO 13628-4 and ASME VIII-1, and by comprehensively considering the erosion of oil and the gravity load of the tubing, a calculation model is established by regarding design pressure and thermal stress, and the method for designing the tubing hanger of the horizontal Christmas tree under big temperature difference condition is developed from the fourth strength theory. The proposed theory for strength design of the tubing hanger in big temperature difference is verified by numerical results from ABAQUS.
Hydroelastic Response of A Circular Plate in Waves on A Two-Layer Fluid of Finite Depth
LIN Qiang, LU Dong-qiang, Ronald W. YEUNG
2014, (5): 671-686.
The hydroelastic response of a circular, very large floating structure (VLFS), idealized as a floating circular elastic thin plate, is investigated for the case of time-harmonic incident waves of the surface and interfacial wave modes, of a given wave frequency, on a two-layer fluid of finite and constant depth. In linear potential-flow theory, with the aid of angular eigenfunction expansions, the diffraction potentials can be expressed by the Bessel functions. A system of simultaneous equations is derived by matching the velocity and the pressure between the open-water and the plate-covered regions, while incorporating the edge conditions of the plate. Then the complex nested series are simplified by utilizing the orthogonality of the vertical eigenfunctions in the open-water region. Numerical computations are presented to investigate the effects of different physical quantities, such as the thickness of the plate, Young’s modulus, the ratios of the densities and of the layer depths, on the dispersion relations of the flexural-gravity waves for the two-layer fluid. Rapid convergence of the method is observed, but is slower at higher wave frequency. At high frequency, it is found that there is some energy transferred from the interfacial mode to the surface mode.
Numerical Study on the Effect of Submerged Depth on the Horizontal Plate Wave Energy Converter
Flávio Medeiros SEIBT, Eduardo Costa COUTO, Elizaldo Domingues dos SANTOS, Liércio André ISOLDI, Luiz Alberto Oliveira ROCHA, Paulo Roberto de Freitas TEIXEIRA
2014, (5): 687-700.
The growing search for clean and renewable energy sources has given rise to the studies of exploring sea wave energy. This paper is concerned with the numerical evaluation of the main operational principle of a submerged plate employed for the conversion of wave energy into electrical one. The numerical model used to solve the conservation equations of mass, momentum and transport of volume fraction is based on the finite volume method (FVM). In order to tackle with the flow of mixture of air-water and its interaction with the device, the multiphase model volume of fluid (VOF) is employed. The purpose of this study is the evaluation of a numerical model for improvement of the knowledge about the submerged plate wave energy converter, as well as the investigation of the effect of the distance from the plate to the bottom of the sea (HP) on the performance of the converter. The simulations for several distances of the plate from the seabed show that the optimal efficiency is 64%, which is obtained for HP=0.53 m (88% of the depth). This efficiency is 17% larger than that found in the worst case (HP=0.46 m, 77% of the depth).
Numerical Simulation of Breaking Wave Generated Sediment Suspension and Transport Process Based on CLSVOF Algorithm
LU Xin-hua, ZHANG Xiao-feng, LU Jun-qing, DONG Bing-jiang
2014, (5): 701-712.
The sediment suspension and transport process under complex breaking wave situation is investigated using large eddy simulation (abbreviated as LES hereafter) method. The coupled level set (LS) and volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to accurately capture the evolution of air?water interface. The wall effect at the bottom is modeled based on the wave friction term while the complicate bottom boundary condition for sediment is tackled using Chou and Fringer’s sediment erosion and deposition flux method. A simulation is carried out to study the sediment suspension and transport process under periodic plunging breaking waves. The comparison between the results by CLSVOF method and those obtained by the LS method is given. It shows that the latter performs as well as the CLSVOF method in the pre-breaking weak-surface deformation situation. However, a serious mass conservation problem in the later stages of wave breaking makes it inappropriate for this study by use of the LS method and thus the CLSVOF method is suggested. The flow field and the distribution of suspended sediment concentration are then analyzed in detail. At the early stage of breaking, the sediment is mainly concentrated near the bottom area. During the wave breaking process, when the entrapped large-scale air bubble travels downward to approach the bottom, strong shear is induced and the sediment is highly entrained.
Opposition-Based Firefly Algorithm for Earth Slope Stability Evaluation
Mohammad KHAJEHZADEH, Mohd Raihan TAHA, Mahdiyeh ESLAMI
2014, (5): 713-724.
This paper introduces a new approach of firefly algorithm based on opposition-based learning (OBFA) to enhance the global search ability of the original algorithm. The new algorithm employs opposition based learning concept to generate initial population and also updating agents’ positions. The proposed OBFA is applied for minimization of the factor of safety and search for critical failure surface in slope stability analysis. The numerical experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the new algorithm.

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