ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2014 Vol.(6)

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Higher Harmonics Induced by Waves Propagating over A Submerged Obstacle in the Presence of Uniform Current
NING De-zhi, LIN Hong-xing, TENG Bin, ZOU Qing-ping
2014, (6): 725-738.
To investigate higher harmonics induced by a submerged obstacle in the presence of uniform current, a 2D fully nonlinear numerical wave flume (NWF) is developed by use of a time-domain higher-order boundary element method (HOBEM) based on potential flow theory. A four-point method is developed to decompose higher bound and free harmonic waves propagating upstream and downstream around the obstacle. The model predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data for free harmonics induced by a submerged horizontal cylinder in the absence of currents. This serves as a benchmark to reveal the current effects on higher harmonic waves. The peak value of non-dimensional second free harmonic amplitude is shifted upstream for the opposing current relative to that for zero current with the variation of current-free incident wave amplitude, and it is vice versa for the following current. The second-order analysis shows a resonant behavior which is related to the ratio of the cylinder diameter to the second bound mode wavelength over the cylinder. The second-order resonant position slightly downshifted for the opposing current and upshifted for the following current.
Risk Analysis of Breakwater Caisson Under Wave Attack Using Load Surface Approximation
Dong Hyawn KIM
2014, (6): 739-748.
A new load surface based approach to the reliability analysis of caisson-type breakwater is proposed. Uncertainties of the horizontal and vertical wave loads acting on breakwater are considered by using the so-called load surfaces, which can be estimated as functions of wave height, water level, and so on. Then, the first-order reliability method (FORM) can be applied to determine the probability of failure under the wave action. In this way, the reliability analysis of breakwaters with uncertainties both in wave height and in water level is possible. Moreover, the uncertainty in wave breaking can be taken into account by considering a random variable for wave height ratio which relates the significant wave height to the maximum wave height. The proposed approach is applied numerically to the reliability analysis of caisson breakwater under wave attack that may undergo partial or full wave breaking.
Hydrodynamic Performance of the Arc-Shaped Bottom-Mounted Breakwater
CHU Yu-chuan, CHENG Jian-sheng, WANG Jing-quan, LI Zhi-gang, JIANG Ke-bin
2014, (6): 749-760.
The problem of the hydrodynamic interaction with the arc-shaped bottom-mounted breakwaters is investigated theoretically. The breakwater is assumed to be rigid, thin, impermeable and vertically located in a finite water depth. The fluid domain is divided into two sub-regions of inner and outer by an auxiliary circular interface. Linear theory is assumed and the eigenfunction expansion approach is used to determine the wave field. In order to examine the validity of the theoretical model, the analytical solutions are compared to agree well with published results with the same parameters. Numerical results including wave amplitude, surge pressure, and wave force are presented with different model parameters. The major factors including wave parameters, structure con?guration, and water depth that affect the surge pressure, wave forces, and wave amplitudes are discussed and illustrated by some graphs and cloud maps.
A New Model of Peaks over Threshold for Multivariate Extremes
LUO Yao, ZHU Liang-sheng
2014, (6): 761-776.
The peaks over threshold (POT) methods are used for the univariate and multivariate extreme value analyses of the wave and wind records collected from a hydrometric station in the South China Sea. A new multivariate POT method: Multivariate GPD (MGPD) model is proposed, which can be built easily according to developed parametric models and is a natural distribution of multivariate POT methods. A joint threshold selection approach is used in the MGPD model well. Finally, sensitivity analyses are carried out to calculate the return values of the base shear, and two declustering schemes are compared in this study.
Numerical Simulation and Dynamical Analysis for Low Salinity Water Lens in the Expansion Area of the Changjiang Diluted Water
ZHANG Wen-jing, ZHU Shou-xian, LI Xun-qiang, RUAN Kun, GUAN Wei-bing, PENG Jian
2014, (6): 777-790.
The low salinity water lenses (LSWLes) in the expansion area of the Changjiang diluted water (CDW) exist in a certain period of time in some years. The impact of realistic river runoff, ocean currents and weather conditions need to be taken into account in the dynamical analysis of LSWL, which is in need of research. In this paper, the POM-σ-z model is used to set up the numerical model for the expansion of the CDW. Then LSWL in summer 1977 is simulated, and its dynamic mechanism driven by wind, tide, river runoff and the Taiwan Warm Current is also analyzed. The simulated results indicate that the isolated LSWL detaches itself from the CDW near the river mouth, and then moves towards the northeast region outside the Changjiang Estuary. Its maintaining period is from July 26 to August 11. Its formation and development is mainly driven by two factors. One is the strong southeasterly wind lasting for ten days. The other is the vertical tidal mixing during the transition from neap tide to spring tide.
Comparative Study of Different SPH Schemes on Simulating Violent Water Wave Impact Flows
ZHENG Xing, MA Qing-wei, DUAN Wen-yang
2014, (6): 791-806.
Free surface flows are of significant interest in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). However, violent water wave impact simulation especially when free surface breaks or impacts on solid wall can be a big challenge for many CFD techniques. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) has been reported as a robust and reliable method for simulating violent free surface flows. Weakly compressible SPH (WCSPH) uses an equation of state with a large sound speed, and the results of the WCSPH can induce a noisy pressure field and spurious oscillation of pressure in time history for wave impact problem simulation. As a remedy, the truly incompressible SPH (ISPH) technique was introduced, which uses a pressure Poisson equation to calculate the pressure. Although the pressure distribution in the whole field obtained by ISPH is smooth, the stability of the techniques is still an open discussion. In this paper, a new free surface identification scheme and solid boundary handling method are introduced to improve the accuracy of ISPH. This modified ISPH is used to study dam breaking flow and violent tank sloshing flows. On the comparative study of WCSPH and ISPH, the accuracy and efficiency are assessed and the results are compared with the experimental data.
Development of All-Weather and Real-Time Bottom-Mounted Monitor of Bed Load Quantity
DOU Xi-ping, ZUO Qi-hua, YING Qiang, HUANG Hai-long
2014, (6): 807-814.
Quantity of bed load is an important physical parameter in sediment transport research. Aiming at the difficulties in the bed load measurement, this paper develops a bottom-mounted monitor to measure the bed load transport rate by adopting the sedimentation pit method and resolving such key problems as weighing and desilting, which can achieve long-time, all-weather and real-time telemeasurement of the bed load transport rate of plain rivers, estuaries and coasts. Both laboratory and field tests show that this monitor is reasonable in design, stable in properties and convenient in measurement, and it can be used to monitor the bed load transport rate in practical projects.
Steady-State Configuration and Tension Calculations of Marine Cables Under Complex Currents via Separated Particle Swarm Optimization
XU Xue-song
2014, (6): 815-828.
Under complex currents, the motion governing equations of marine cables are complex and nonlinear, and the calculations of cable configuration and tension become difficult compared with those under the uniform or simple currents. To obtain the numerical results, the usual Newton?Raphson iteration is often adopted, but its stability depends on the initial guessed solution to the governing equations. To improve the stability of numerical calculation, this paper proposed separated the particle swarm optimization, in which the variables are separated into several groups, and the dimension of search space is reduced to facilitate the particle swarm optimization. Via the separated particle swarm optimization, these governing nonlinear equations can be solved successfully with any initial solution, and the process of numerical calculation is very stable. For the calculations of cable configuration and tension of marine cables under complex currents, the proposed separated swarm particle optimization is more effective than the other particle swarm optimizations.
Critical Top Tension for Static Equilibrium Configuration of A Steel Catenary Riser
2014, (6): 829-842.
This paper aims to present the critical top tension for static equilibrium configurations of a steel catenary riser (SCR) by using the finite element method. The critical top tension is the minimum top tension that can maintain the equilibrium of the SCR. If the top tension is smaller than the critical value, the equilibrium of the SCR does not exist. If the top tension is larger than the critical value, there are two possible equilibrium configurations. These two configurations exhibit the nonlinear large displacement. The configuration with the smaller displacement is stable, while the one with larger displacement is unstable. The numerical results show that the increases in the riser’s vertical distances, horizontal offsets, riser’s weights, internal flow velocities, and current velocities increase the critical top tensions of the SCR. In addition, the parametric studies are also performed in order to investigate the limit states for the analysis and design of the SCR.
Development of A Three-Dimensional Guidance System for Long-Range Maneuvering of A Miniature Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
2014, (6): 843-856.
The present paper introduces a three-dimensional guidance system developed for a miniature Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The guidance system determines the best trajectory for the vehicle based on target behavior and vehicle capabilities. The dynamic model of this novel AUV is derived based on its special characteristics such as the horizontal posture and the independent diving mechanism. To design the guidance strategy, the main idea is to select the desired depth, presumed proportional to the horizontal distance of the AUV and the target. By connecting the two with a straight line, this strategy helps the AUV move in a trajectory sufficiently close to this line. The adjacency of the trajectory to the line leads to reasonably short travelling distances and avoids unsafe areas. Autopilots are designed using sliding mode controller. Two different engagement geometries are considered to evaluate the strategy’s performance: stationary target and moving target. The simulation results show that the strategy can provide sufficiently fast and smooth trajectories in both target situations.
Multiaxial Fatigue Analysis on Reeled Deepwater Steel Catenary Risers with Girth Weld Defects
YANG He-zhen, DING Jin-hong, LI Qing-quan, LI Hua-jun
2014, (6): 857-868.
In the present study, we simulated the reel-lay installation process of deepwater steel catenary risers (SCRs) using the finite element method and proposed multiaxial fatigue analysis for reeled SCRs. The reel-lay method is one of the most efficient and economical pipeline installation methods. However, material properties of reeled risers may change, especially in the weld zone, which can affect the fatigue performance. Applying finite element analysis (FEA), we simulated an installation load history through the reel, aligner, and straightener and analyzed the property variations. The impact of weld defects during the installation process, lack of penetration and lack of fusion, was also discussed. Based on the FEA results, we used the Brown-Miller criterion combined with the critical plane approach to predict the fatigue life of reeled and non-reeled models. The results indicated that a weld defect has a significant influence on the material properties of a riser, and the reel-lay method can significantly reduce the fatigue life of SCRs. The analysis conclusion can help designers understand the mechanical performance of welds during reel-lay installation.
Experimental Study on Mechanism and Shape Characteristics of Suspended Flexible Dam
WANG Jian-zhong, FAN Hong-xia, ZHU Li-jun
2014, (6): 869-878.
Hydraulic structures such as groin, longitudinal dike and seawall are common in water conservancy and water transportation engineering projects at home and abroad, which have long been dominated by solid mass structural form. With brush and stone as building materials, this kind of structure has an obvious engineering effect. However, it not only requires huge capital investments, but also has negative impacts on the ecological environment. The suspended flexible dam is an innovative engineering measure, and few theoretical and experimental researches of this type dam can be found at present. This paper studies the mechanism and shape characteristics of this dam and obtains the dynamic equilibrium equation of flexible dam, the float buoyancy expression, and the condition for transformation among three forms of the underwater shape of the dam. The results are valuable in engineering application and can be used as the reference for the future work due to the distinctive design philosophy, the small negative effects on environment and the consistency for sustainable development.

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