ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2015 Vol.(1)

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Focused Wave Properties Based on A High Order Spectral Method with A Non-Periodic Boundary
LI Jin-xuan, LIU Shu-xue
2015, (1): 1-16.
In this paper, a numerical model is developed based on the High Order Spectral (HOS) method with a non-periodic boundary. A wave maker boundary condition is introduced to simulate wave generation at the incident boundary in the HOS method. Based on the numerical model, the effects of wave parameters, such as the assumed focused amplitude, the central frequency, the frequency bandwidth, the wave amplitude distribution and the directional spreading on the surface elevation of the focused wave, the maximum generated wave crest, and the shifting of the focusing point, are numerically investigated. Especially, the effects of the wave directionality on the focused wave properties are emphasized. The numerical results show that the shifting of the focusing point and the maximum crest of the wave group are dependent on the amplitude of the focused wave, the central frequency, and the wave amplitude distribution type. The wave directionality has a definite effect on multidirectional focused waves. Generally, it can even out the difference between the simulated wave amplitude and the amplitude expected from theory and reduce the shifting of the focusing points, implying that the higher order interaction has an influence on wave focusing, especially for 2D wave. In 3D wave groups, a broader directional spreading weakens the higher nonlinear interactions.
Motion Characteristics of Cavitation Bubble near the Rigid Wall with the Driving of Acoustic Wave
YE Xi, ZHANG A-man, ZENG Dong-rui
2015, (1): 17-32.
The dynamics of cavitation bubble is analyzed in the compressible fluid by use of the boundary integral equation considering the compressibility. After the vertical incidence of plane wave to the rigid wall, the motion characteristics of single cavitation bubble near the rigid wall with initial equilibrium state are researched with different parameters. The results show that after the driving of acoustic wave, the cavitation bubble near the rigid wall will expand or contract, and generate the jet pointing to the wall. Also, the existence of the wall will elongate time for one oscillation. With the compressible model, the oscillation amplitude is reduced, as well as the peak value of inner pressure and jet tip velocity. The effect of the wall on oscillation amplitude is limited. However with the increment of initial vertical distance, the effect of wall on the jet velocity is from acceleration to limitation, and finally to acceleration again.
Experimental and Numerical Study on Vibration of the Full-Revolving Propulsion Ship Stern
LIU Chang-qing, CHE Chi-dong, SHEN Xiao-han
2015, (1): 33-48.
In order to solve the severe vibration problems of an ocean engineering ship with a full-revolving propulsion system, the navigation tests, including forced vibration response test and modal test, are carried out in its stern. It is concluded from the comparison of the time-domain waveform and spectrum from different measurement points that three main factors lead to a high-level stern vibration. Firstly, the specific dynamic stiffness of a water tank is relatively small compared with its neighbor hold, which makes it act like a vibration isolator preventing vibrational energy transmitting to the main hold. Secondly, there exists high-density local modes in the working frequency range of the main engine and thus the local resonance occurs. Thirdly, the abnormal engagement of gears caused by the large deflection of the shaft bearing due to its low mounting rigidity leads to violent extra impulse excitations at high speeds. Then the modification against the dynamic defects is given by simply improving the specific stiffness of the water tanks. And the effect is validated by the FEM calculation. Some important experience is obtained with the problems being solved, which is useful in the design of ships with the same propulsion system. It is also believed that the dynamic consideration is as important as the static analysis for the ships, and that most of the vibration problems may be avoided with a proper acoustic design.
An Analytical Method for Positioning Drag Anchors in Seabed Soils
ZHANG Wei, LIU Hai-xiao, LI Xin-zhong, LI Qing-ping, CAO Jing
2015, (1): 49-64.
Positioning drag anchors in seabed soils are strongly influenced not only by the properties of the anchor and soil, but also by the characteristics of the installation line. The investigation on the previous prediction methods related to anchor positioning demonstrates that the prediction of the anchor position during dragging has inevitably introduced some key and unsubstantiated hypotheses and the applicability of these methods is limited. In the present study, the interactional system between the drag anchor and installation line is firstly introduced for the analysis of anchor positioning. Based on the two mechanical models for embedded lines and drag anchors, the positioning equations for drag anchors have been derived both for cohesive and noncohesive soils. Since the drag angle at the shackle is the most important parameter in the positioning equations, a novel analytical method that can predict both the variation and the exact value of the drag angle at the shackle is proposed. The analytical method for positioning drag anchors which combines the interactional system between the drag anchor and the installation line has provided a reasonable theoretic approach to investigate the anchor behaviors in soils. By comparing with the model flume experiments, the sensitivity, effectiveness and veracity of the positioning method are well verified.
Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis of Jack-up Platforms Subjected to Monochrome and Irregular Waves
Maziar Gholami KORZANI, Ali Akbar AGHAKOUCHAK
2015, (1): 65-80.
As jack-up platforms have recently been used in deeper and harsher waters, there has been an increasing demand to understand their behaviour more accurately to develop more sophisticated analysis techniques. One of the areas of significant development has been the modelling of spudcan performance, where the load-displacement behaviour of the foundation is required to be included in any numerical model of the structure. In this study, beam on nonlinear winkler foundation (BNWF) modeling—which is based on using nonlinear springs and dampers instead of a continuum soil media—is employed for this purpose. A regular monochrome design wave and an irregular wave representing a design sea state are applied to the platform as lateral loading. By using the BNWF model and assuming a granular soil under spudcans, properties such as soil nonlinear behaviour near the structure, contact phenomena at the interface of soil and spudcan (such as uplifting and rocking), and geometrical nonlinear behaviour of the structure are studied. Results of this study show that inelastic behaviour of the soil causes an increase in the lateral displacement at the hull elevation and permanent unequal settlement in soil below the spudcans, which are increased by decreasing the friction angle of the sandy soil. In fact, spudcans and the underlying soil cause a relative fixity at the platform support, which changes the dynamic response of the structure compared with the case where the structure is assumed to have a fixed support or pinned support. For simulating this behaviour without explicit modelling of soil-structure interaction (SSI), moment-rotation curves at the end of platform legs, which are dependent on foundation dimensions and soil characteristics, are obtained. These curves can be used in a simplified model of the platform for considering the relative fixity at the soil-foundation interface.
Comparative Study on Response Surfaces for Reliability Analysis of Spatially Variable Soil Slope
LI Liang, CHU Xue-song
2015, (1): 81-90.
This paper focuses on the performance of the second-order polynomial-based response surfaces on the reliability of spatially variable soil slope. A single response surface constructed to approximate the slope system failure performance function G(X) (called single RS) and multiple response surfaces constructed on finite number of slip surfaces (called multiple RS) are developed, respectively. Single RS and multiple RS are applied to evaluate the system failure probability pf for a cohesive soil slope together with Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). It is found that pf calculated by single RS deviates significantly from that obtained by searching a large number of potential slip surfaces, and this deviation becomes insignificant with the decrease of the number of random variables or the increase of the scale of fluctuation. In other words, single RS cannot approximate G(X) with reasonable accuracy. The value of pf from multiple response surfaces fits well with that obtained by searching a large number of potential slip surfaces. That is, multiple RS can estimate G(X) with reasonable accuracy.
Mixing of A Non-Circular Jet into A Counterflow
LI Zhi-wei, XIAO Yang, TANG Hong-wu
2015, (1): 91-104.
An elliptic jet and a square jet flowing into a counterflow with different jet-to-current velocity ratios are investigated by using realizable k–ε model. Some computed mean velocity and scalar features agree reasonably well with experimental measurements, and more features are obtained by analyzing the computed results. After fluid issues from a nozzle, it entrains ambient fluid, and its velocity and concentration on the centerline decay with the distance downstream from the potential core (l0). The decay ratio increases with the decreasing jet-to-current velocity ratio α. For an elliptic jet, the evolution of the excess velocity half-width b and the concentration half-width bc merely remains constant near the jet exit on major-axis plane while they increase linearly on the minor-axis plane. However, the half-widths on the major-axis and minor-axis plane become proportional to the axial distance downstream after equaling each other. For a square jet, b and bc increase linearly with the distance downstream from the jet exit, but the spread ratio is larger on the middle plane than that on the diagonal plane before they equal each other. The radial extent of the dividing streamline rs or the mixing boundary rsc increases linearly downstream, and decreases exponentially after reaching a peak at xb. The ratio on the minor-axis plane is larger than that on the major-axis plane for an elliptic jet. The characteristics are the same for the square jet. b, bc, rs, and rsc on two corresponding planes become equal to each other more rapidly for the square jet than for the elliptic jet, because the sharp corner of the square nozzle induces secondary structures that are more intense. The distributions of the excess axial velocity and scalar concentration exhibit self-similarity for either the elliptic jet or square jet in the region of l0 < x < xb. On the cross section, four counter-rotating pairs of vortices, which enhance the entrainment between the jet and counterflow, form at the four corners of the square jet or at the two ends of the major-axis plane of the elliptic jet. The recirculation pattern formed by these axial vortices is more complex for the square jet than that for the elliptic jet. The turbulent kinetic energy k have large value in the region near the jet exit and stagnation point. The maximum value of k for the square jet is larger than that of the elliptic jet near the jet exit. This results in the square jet mixing more strongly than the elliptic jet.
A New Method for Matched Field Localization Based on Two-Hydrophone
LI Kun, FANG Shi-liang
2015, (1): 105-120.
The conventional matched field processing (MFP) uses large vertical arrays to locate an underwater acoustic target. However, the use of large vertical arrays increases equipment and computational cost, and causes some problems such as element failures, and array tilting to degrade the localization performance. In this paper, the matched field localization method using two-hydrophone is proposed for underwater acoustic pulse signals with an unknown emitted signal waveform. Using the received signal of hydrophones and the ocean channel pulse response which can be calculated from an acoustic propagation model, the spectral matrix of the emitted signal for different source locations can be estimated by employing the method of frequency domain least squares. The resulting spectral matrix of the emitted signal for every grid region is then multiplied by the ocean channel frequency response matrix to generate the spectral matrix of replica signal. Finally, the matched field localization using two-hydrophone for underwater acoustic pulse signals of an unknown emitted signal waveform can be estimated by comparing the difference between the spectral matrixes of the received signal and the replica signal. The simulated results from a shallow water environment for broadband signals demonstrate the significant localization performance of the proposed method. In addition, the localization accuracy in five different cases are analyzed by the simulation trial, and the results show that the proposed method has a sharp peak and low sidelobes, overcoming the problem of high sidelobes in the conventional MFP due to lack of the number of elements.
Modeling and Analysis of Airlift System Operating in Three-Phase Flow
HU Dong, KANG Yong, TANG Chuan-lin, WANG Xiao-chuan
2015, (1): 121-132.
Based on the momentum theorem, the fluid governing equation in a lifting pipe is proposed by use of the method combining theoretical analysis with empirical correlations related to the previous research, and the performance of an airlift pump can be clearly characterized by the triangular relationship among the volumetric flux of air, water and solid particles, which are obtained respectively by using numerical calculation. The meso-scale river sand is used as tested particles to examine the theoretical model. Results of the model are compared with the data in three-phase flow obtained prior to the development of the present model, by an independent experimental team that used the physical conditions of the present approach. The analytical error can be controlled within 12% for predicting the volumetric flux of water and is smaller than that (±16%) of transporting solid particles in three-phase flow. The experimental results and computations are in good agreement for air?water two-phase flow within a margin of ±8%. Reasonable agreement justifies the use of the present model for engineering design purposes.
Estimation of Bed Shear Stresses in the Pearl River Estuary
LIU Huan, WU Jia-xue
2015, (1): 133-142.
Mean and fluctuating velocities were measured by use of a pulse coherent acoustic Doppler profiler (PC-ADP) and an acoustic Doppler velocimeter in the tidal bottom boundary layer of the Pearl River Estuary. The bed shear stresses were estimated by four different methods: log profile (LP), eddy correlation (EC), turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and inertial dissipation (ID). The results show that (a) all four methods for estimating bed stresses have advantages and disadvantages, and they should be applied simultaneously to obtain reliable frictional velocity and to identify potential sources of errors; (b) the LP method was found to be the most suitable to estimate the bed stresses in non-stratified, quasi-steady, and homogeneous flows; and (c) in the estuary where the semi-diurnal tidal current is dominant, bed shear stresses exhibit a strong quarter-diurnal variation.
Analysis of Jiangsu Tidal Flats Reclamation from 1974 to 2012 Using Remote Sensing
ZHAO Sai-shuai, LIU Yong-xue, LI Man-chun, SUN Chao, ZHOU Min-xi, ZHANG He-xia
2015, (1): 143-154.
Jiangsu has the most abundant tidal flat resources among China’s coastal provinces. To ease the conflict between the growing population and shrinking usable land and to promote regional sustainable development, large-scale coastal reclamation development activities have been performed in Jiangsu Province since 1949. The present study has integrated multi-source remote sensing images during 1974 to 2012 by using a Multi-point Fast Marching Method (MFMM) to extract the Jiangsu coastal reclamation areas for different time periods. The temporal and spatial patterns of the extent and elevation of the reclamation areas were analysed in order to determine the unused potential for future reclamation. It will provide information necessary to support the development and construction of tidal flats in Jiangsu. Results show that: (1) the reclaimed tidal flats along the Jiangsu coast cover more than 19.86×104 hm2, of which 13.97×104 hm2 is located in Yancheng, 4.84×104 hm2 in Nantong, and 1.05×104 hm2 in Lianyungang; (2) the average elevation of the reclaimed Jiangsu tidal flats has gradually decreased over the last 40 years, while those in Dongtai and Rudong have showed particularly accelerated decrease since the 1990s; and (3) in 2012, very few unused tidal flats two meters above the sea level are left along the Jiangsu coast, and mainly concentrated in Yancheng. As there are still reserving some coastal land resources between 0?2 m, providing us with a potential for future development. All of these findings may be useful for researchers and local authorities for the development and utilization of tidal flat resources in Jiangsu.

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