ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2015 Vol.(2)

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Time-Domain Simulation for Coupled Motions of Three Barges Moored Side-by-Side in Floatover Operation
XU Xin, YANG Jian-min, LI Xin, XU Liang-yu
2015, (2): 155-168.
Simulating the coupled motions of multiple bodies in the time domain is a complex problem because of the strong hydrodynamic interactions and coupled effect of various mechanical connectors. In this study, we investigate the hydrodynamic responses of three barges moored side-by-side in a floatover operation in the frequency and time domains. In the frequency domain, the damping lid method is adopted to improve the overestimated hydrodynamic coefficients calculated from conventional potential flow theory. A time-domain computing program based on potential flow theory and impulse theory is compiled for analyses that consider multibody hydrodynamic interactions and mechanical effects from lines and fenders. Correspondingly, an experiment is carried out for comparison with the numerical results. All statistics, time series, and power density spectra from decay and irregular wave tests are in a fairly good agreement.
Coupling Response of Heave and Moonpool Water Motion of A Truss Spar Platform in Random Waves
LIU Li-qin, ZHOU Han, TANG You-gang
2015, (2): 169-182.
This paper presents the heave responses and the moonpool water motions of a truss Spar platform with semi-closed moonpool in random waves. A 2-DOF (degree of freedom) coupling dynamical equations of the platform heave and vertical motions of the moonpool water are derived. The linear wave theory is used to simulate the random waves. The response statistical values and the power spectrums are calculated to analyze the mutual influences between the platform heave and the moonpool water motions for different opening ratios of the moonpool. The effect of coupling parameters on the platform heave and the moonpool water motions are analyzed. The results show that motions of the moonpool water significantly affected the platform heave when the characteristic wave period is far away from the natural period of the platform heave, and different moonpool opening ratios lead to different heave amplitudes of the platform. In the actual design, an optimized moonpool opening ratio can be designed to reduce heave motions of the platform.
RANS-VOF Solver for Solitary Wave Run-up on A Circular Cylinder
CAO Hong-jian, WAN De-cheng
2015, (2): 183-196.
Simulation of solitary wave run-up on a vertical circular cylinder is carried out in a viscous numerical wave tank developed based on the open source codes OpenFOAM. An incompressible two-phase flow solver naoe-FOAM-SJTU is used to solve the Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations with the SST turbulence model. The PISO algorithm is utilized for the pressure-velocity coupling. The air-water interface is captured via Volume of Fluid (VOF) technique. The present numerical model is validated by simulating the solitary wave run-up and reflected against a vertical wall, and solitary wave run-up on a vertical circular cylinder. Comparisons between numerical results and available experimental data show satisfactory agreement. Furthermore, simulations are carried out to study the solitary wave run-up on the cylinder with different incident wave height H and different cylinder radius a. The relationships of the wave run-up height with the incident wave height H, cylinder radius a are analyzed. The evolutions of the scattering free surface and vortex shedding are also presented to give a better understanding of the process of nonlinear wave?cylinder interaction.
Numerical Method for Wave Forces Acting on Partially Perforated Caisson
JIANG Feng, TANG Xiao-cheng, JIN Zhao, ZHANG Li, CHEN Hong-zhou
2015, (2): 197-208.
The perforated caisson is widely applied to practical engineering because of its great advantages in effectively wave energy consumption and cost reduction. The attentions of many scientists were paid to the fluid–structure interaction between wave and perforated caisson studies, but until now, most concerns have been put on theoretical analysis and experimental model set up. In this paper, interaction between the wave and the partial perforated caisson in a 2D numerical wave flume is investigated by means of the renewed SPH algorithm, and the mathematical equations are in the form of SPH numerical approximation based on Navier–Stokes equations. The validity of the SPH mathematical method is examined and the simulated results are compared with the results of theoretical models, meanwhile the complex hydrodynamic characteristics when the water particles flow in or out of a wave absorbing chamber are analyzed and the wave pressure distribution of the perforated caisson is also addressed here. The relationship between the ratio of total horizontal force acting on caisson under regular waves and its influence factors is examined. The data show that the numerical calculation of the ratio of total horizontal force meets the empirical regression equation very well. The simulations of SPH about the wave nonlinearity and breaking are briefly depicted in the paper, suggesting that the advantages and great potentiality of the SPH method is significant compared with traditional methods.
A Geometrically Exact Formulation for Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of the Umbilical Cable in A Deep-Sea ROV System
QUAN Wei-cai, ZHANG Zhu-ying, ZHANG Ai-qun, ZHANG Qi-feng, TIAN Yu
2015, (2): 223-240.
This paper proposes a geometrically exact formulation for three-dimensional static and dynamic analyses of the umbilical cable in a deep-sea remotely operated vehicle (ROV) system. The presented formulation takes account of the geometric nonlinearities of large displacement, effects of axial load and bending stiffness for modeling of slack cables. The resulting nonlinear second-order governing equations are discretized spatially by the finite element method and solved temporally by the generalized- implicit time integration algorithm, which is adapted to the case of varying coefficient matrices. The ability to consider three-dimensional union action of ocean current and ship heave motion upon the umbilical cable is the key feature of this analysis. The presented formulation is firstly validated, and then three numerical examples for the umbilical cable in a deep-sea ROV system are demonstrated and discussed, including the steady configurations only under the action of depth-dependent ocean current, the dynamic responses in the case of the only ship heave motion, and in the case of the combined action of the ship heave motion and ocean current.
Ultimate Load Capacity of Offshore Pipeline with Arbitrary Shape Corrosion Defects
CHEN Yan-fei, ZHANG Juan, ZHANG Hong, LIU Xiao-ben, LI Xin, ZHOU Jing, CAO Jing
2015, (2): 241-252.
A set of generalized solutions are proposed for estimating ultimate load capacity of pipeline with arbitrary corrosion shapes subjected to combined internal pressure, axial force and bending moment. Isotropic and anisotropic material characteristics in longitudinal and circumferential direction of pipeline are also considered in the proposed equations. Simplified numerical method is used to solve the generalized expressions. The comparisons of numerical results based generalized solutions and full-scale experimental results are carried out. The predicted results agree reasonably well with the experiment results. Meanwhile, the effects of corrosion shapes and locations on the ultimate load capacity are studied.
Characteristics of Vibrational Wave Propagation and Attenuation in Submarine Fluid-Filled Pipelines
2015, (2): 253-263.
As an important part of lifeline engineering in the development and utilization of marine resources, the submarine fluid-filled pipeline is a complex coupling system which is subjected to both internal and external flow fields. By utilizing Kennard’s shell equations and combining with Helmholtz equations of flow field, the coupling equations of submarine fluid-filled pipeline for n=0 axisymmetrical wave motion are set up. Analytical expressions of wave speed are obtained for both s=1 and s=2 waves, which correspond to a fluid-dominated wave and an axial shell wave, respectively. The numerical results for wave speed and wave attenuation are obtained and discussed subsequently. It shows that the frequency depends on phase velocity, and the attenuation of this mode depends strongly on material parameters of the pipe and the internal and the external fluid fields. The characteristics of PVC pipe are studied for a comparison. The effects of shell thickness/radius ratio and density of the contained fluid on the model are also discussed. The study provides a theoretical basis and helps to accurately predict the situation of submarine pipelines, which also has practical application prospect in the field of pipeline leakage detection.
3D Numerical Simulation Analysis of Passive Drag near Free Surface in Swimming
ZHAN Jie-min, LI Tian-zeng, CHEN Xue-bin, LI Yok-sheung, WAI Wing-hong, Onyx
2015, (2): 265-273.
The aim of this work is to build a 3D numerical model to study the characteristics of passive drag on competitive swimmers taking into account the impact of the free surface. This model solves the 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations using RNG k?ε turbulence closure. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to locate the free surface. The 3D virtual model is created by Computer Aided Industrial Design (CAID) software, Rhinoceros. Firstly, a specific posture of swimming is studied. The simulation results are in good agreement with the data from mannequin towing experiments. The effects of a swimmer’s arms and legs positions on swimming performance are then studied. Finally, it is demonstrated that the present method is capable of simulating gliding near the free surface.
Wave Energy Estimation by Using A Statistical Analysis and Wave Buoy Data near the Southern Caspian Sea
A. R. Zamani, M. A. Badri
2015, (2): 275-286.
Statistical analysis was done on simultaneous wave and wind using data recorded by discus-shape wave buoy. The area is located in the southern Caspian Sea near the Anzali Port. Recorded wave data were obtained through directional spectrum wave analysis. Recorded wind direction and wind speed were obtained through the related time series as well. For 12-month measurements (May 25 2007?2008), statistical calculations were done to specify the value of nonlinear auto-correlation of wave and wind using the probability distribution function of wave characteristics and statistical analysis in various time periods. The paper also presents and analyzes the amount of wave energy for the area mentioned on the basis of available database. Analyses showed a suitable comparison between the amounts of wave energy in different seasons. As a result, the best period for the largest amount of wave energy was known. Results showed that in the research period, the mean wave and wind auto correlation were about three hours. Among the probability distribution functions, i.e Weibull, Normal, Lognormal and Rayleigh, “Weibull” had the best consistency with experimental distribution function shown in different diagrams for each season. Results also showed that the mean wave energy in the research period was about 49.88 kW/m and the maximum density of wave energy was found in February and March, 2010.
Dynamic Stability Analysis of Caisson Breakwater in Lifetime Considering the Annual Frequency of Severe Storm
WANG Yu-chi, WANG Yuan-zhan, HONG Ning-ning
2015, (2): 287-300.
In the dynamic stability analysis of a caisson breakwater, most of current studies pay attention to the motion characteristics of caisson breakwaters under a single periodical breaking wave excitation. And in the lifetime stability analysis of caisson breakwater, it is assumed that the caisson breakwater suffers storm wave excitation once annually in the design lifetime. However, the number of annual severe storm occurrence is a random variable. In this paper, a series of random waves are generated by the Wen Sheng-chang wave spectrum, and the histories of successive and long-term random wave forces are built up by using the improved Goda wave force model. It is assumed that the number of annual severe storm occurrence is in the Poisson distribution over the 50-year design lifetime, and the history of random wave excitation is generated for each storm by the wave spectrum. The response histories of the caisson breakwater to the random waves over 50-year design lifetime are calculated and taken as a set of samples. On the basis of the Monte Carlo simulation technique, a large number of samples can be obtained, and the probability assessment of the safety of the breakwater during the complete design lifetime is obtained by statistical analysis of a large number of samples. Finally, the procedure of probability assessment of the breakwater safety is illustrated by an example.
Research on Design Method of the Full Form Ship with Minimum Thrust Deduction Factor
ZHANG Bao-ji, MIAO Ai-qin, ZHANG Zhu-xin
2015, (2): 301-310.
In the preliminary design stage of the full form ships, in order to obtain a hull form with low resistance and maximum propulsion efficiency, an optimization design program for a full form ship with the minimum thrust deduction factor has been developed, which combined the potential flow theory and boundary layer theory with the optimization technique. In the optimization process, the Sequential Unconstrained Minimization Technique (SUMT) interior point method of Nonlinear Programming (NLP) was proposed with the minimum thrust deduction factor as the objective function. An appropriate displacement is a basic constraint condition, and the boundary layer separation is an additional one. The parameters of the hull form modification function are used as design variables. At last, the numerical optimization example for lines of after-body of 50000 DWT product oil tanker was provided, which indicated that the propulsion efficiency was improved distinctly by this optimal design method.

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