ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2015 Vol.(3)

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Dynamic Behavior and Deformation Analysis of the Fish Cage System Using Mass-Spring Model
Chun Woo LEE, Jihoon LEE
2015, (3): 311-324.
Fish cage systems are influenced by various oceanic conditions, and the movements and deformation of the system by the external forces can affect the safety of the system itself, as well as the species of fish being cultivated. Structural durability of the system against environmental factors has been major concern for the marine aquaculture system. In this research, a mathematical model and a simulation method were presented for analyzing the performance of the large-scale fish cage system influenced by current and waves. The cage system consisted of netting, mooring ropes, floats, sinkers and floating collar. All the elements were modeled by use of the mass-spring model. The structures were divided into finite elements and mass points were placed at the mid-point of each element, and mass points were connected by springs without mass. Each mass point was applied to external and internal forces, and total force was calculated in every integration step. The computation method was applied to the dynamic simulation of the actual fish cage systems rigged with synthetic fiber and copper wire simultaneously influenced by current and waves. Here, we also tried to find a relevant ratio between buoyancy and sinking force of the fish cages. The simulation results provide improved understanding of the behavior of the structure and valuable information concerning optimum ratio of the buoyancy to sinking force according to current speeds.
Experimental Study of An Aquaculture Net Cage in Waves and Current
2015, (3): 325-340.
Model experiments of a floating fish cage subjected to waves and current have been performed. The objective was to study the dynamic behaviour of the fish cage model in waves and current. The fish cage model was composed of a model net, a flexible floating collar of the circular plastic type and a weight system. It was found that there are many wave periods in which cancellation of the wave-induced forces on the model occur. These cancellation wave periods are within the range of dimensioning wave periods commonly used for testing of fish farm structures and hence are important to be aware of. Large deformations of the net under realistic wave and current conditions were observed, where contact between the net and other parts of the structure were identified. This may cause damages to the net due to abrasion.
Hydrodynamic Analysis of Elastic Floating Collars in Random Waves
BAI Xiao-dong, ZHAO Yun-peng, DONG Guo-hai, LI Yu-cheng
2015, (3): 341-356.
As the main load-bearing component of fish cages, the floating collar supports the whole cage and undergoes large deformations. In this paper, a mathematical method is developed to study the motions and elastic deformations of elastic floating collars in random waves. The irregular wave is simulated by the random phase method and the statistical approach and Fourier transfer are applied to analyze the elastic response in both time and frequency domains. The governing equations of motions are established by Newton’s second law, and the governing equations of deformations are obtained based on curved beam theory and modal superposition method. In order to validate the numerical model of the floating collar attacked by random waves, a series of physical model tests are conducted. Good relationship between numerical simulation and experimental observations is obtained. The numerical results indicate that the transfer function of out-of-plane and in-plane deformations increase with the increasing of wave frequency. In the frequency range between 0.6 Hz and 1.1 Hz, a linear relationship exists between the wave elevations and the deformations. The average phase difference between the wave elevation and out-of-plane deformation is 60° with waves leading and the phase between the wave elevation and in-plane deformation is 10° with waves lagging. In addition, the effect of fish net on the elastic response is analyzed. The results suggest that the deformation of the floating collar with fish net is a little larger than that without net.
Analysis of A Porous and Flexible Cylinder in Waves
SU Wei, ZHAN Jie-min, HUANG Hua
2015, (3): 357-368.
The hydrodynamic response of a porous flexible circular-cylinder in regular waves was analytically studied. To simplify the problem, the cover and the bottom of the cylinder were ignored. Small amplitude water wave theory and structural responses were assumed. The velocity potentials were solved using the Fourier-Bessel series expansion method and the least squares approximation method. The convergence of the series was numerically tested to determine the number of terms in the series expansion. Two types of installations were considered for deformation, hydrodynamic forces, structural flexibility, drafts, and porosity. The present study represented a preliminary step in the study of the fish cage.
Drag on Hydroid-Fouled Nets – An Experimental Approach
2015, (3): 369-389.
The present study investigated the drag increase on aquaculture nets due to biofouling of the colonial hydroid Ectopleura larynx. It had two main parts: firstly the growth characteristics of E. larynx were investigated by use of field tests at a Norwegian aquaculture site; secondly the hydrodynamic drag on the fouled twines was studied in a towing tank by using fabricated models of net twines with artificial hydroid fouling. In the field tests, the growth of the hydroids was first measured after three weeks of immersion and then again after six weeks. During this interval, the density of hydroids and the thickness of the hydroid stem were almost constant (1.4 hydroids/mm and 0.29 mm, respectively), while the average length of the hydroids increased from 6.4 to 11.2 mm. The hydroid length followed a Rayleigh distribution, while the thickness was normal (Gaussian) distributed. Replicas of twines with three different levels of hydroid growth were made (1.5 hydroids/mm twine, hydroid length 9 mm, 16 mm and 20 mm), and the drag on these twines was measured at different towing velocities (0.1 to 1.4 m/s) and with different twine configurations. For the twine with the shortest hydroids (9 mm), the drag was from 1.5 times (Re=4000) to 2.2 times (Re=1000) the drag on a clean twine. For the longest hydroids (21 mm), the drag was 2 times and 3.8 times, respectively.
Experimental Modelling of Transverse Oscillations in Aquaculture Netting Parallel to the Flow – Sounds Baffling
Andrew JOHNSON, Cheslav BALASH
2015, (3): 391-400.
Numerous studies have been undertaken to improve the viability, durability and suitability of materials and methods used for aquaculture enclosures. While many of the previous studies considered macro-deformation of nets, there is a paucity of information on netting micro-deformation. When aquaculture pens are towed, industry operators have observed the motion described as “baffling” – the transverse oscillation of the net planes parallel and near parallel to the flow. The difficulty to observe and assess baffling motion in a controlled experimental environment is to sufficiently reproduce netting boundary conditions and the flow environment experienced at sea. The focus of the present study was to develop and assess experimental methods for visualisation and quantification of these transverse oscillations. Four net-rig configurations with varied boundary conditions and model-netting properties were tested in a flume tank. While the Reynolds number was not equivalent to full-scale, usage of the pliable and fine mesh model netting that enabled baffling to develop at low flow velocities was deemed to be of a larger relevance to this initial study. Baffling was observed in the testing frame that constrained the net sheet on the leading edge, similarly to a flag attachment onto a pole. Baffling motion increased the hydrodynamic drag of the net by 35%–58% when compared to the previously developed formula for taut net sheets aligned parallel to the flow. Furthermore, it was found that the drag due to baffling decreased with the increasing velocity over the studied Reynolds numbers (below 200); and the drag coefficient was non-linear for Reynolds numbers below 120. It is hypothesised that baffling motion is initially propagated by vortex shedding of the netting twine which causes the netting to oscillate; there after the restoring force causes unstable pressure differences on each side of the netting which excites the amplitude of the netting oscillations.
Numerical Study on the Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Biofouled Full-Scale Net Cage
BI Chun-wei, ZHAO Yun-peng, DONG Guo-hai
2015, (3): 401-414.
The effect of biofouling on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the net cage is of particular interest as biofouled nettings can significantly reduce flow of well-oxygenated water reaching the stocked fish. For computational efficiency, the porous-media fluid model is proposed to simulate flow through the biofouled plane net and full-scale net cage. The porous coefficients of the porous-media fluid model can be determined from the quadratic-function relationship between the hydrodynamic forces on a plane net and the flow velocity using the least squares method. In this study, drag forces on and flow fields around five plane nets with different levels of biofouling are calculated by use of the proposed model. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data of Swift et al. (2006) and the effectiveness of the numerical model is presented. On that basis, flow through full-scale net cages with the same level of biofouling as the tested plane nets are modeled. The flow fields inside and around biofouled net cages are analyzed and the drag force acting on a net cage is estimated by a control volume analysis method. According to the numerical results, empirical formulas of reduction in flow velocity and load on a net cage are derived as function of drag coefficient of the corresponding biofouled netting.
Dynamic Analysis for the Global Performance of An SPM-Feeder-Cage System Under Waves and Currents
2015, (3): 415-430.
In the present study, the dynamic response of a coupled SPM-feeder-cage system under irregular waves and shear currents is analyzed. A numerical model is developed by using the commercial software OrcaFlex. Hydrodynamics coefficients of the vessel are calculated by using a 3D diffraction/radiation panel program. First- and second-order wave forces are included in the calculations. Morison equation is used to compute the drag force on line elements representing the net. Drag coefficients are determined at every time step in the simulation considering the relative normal velocity between the structural elements and the fluid flow. The dynamic response of the coupled system is analyzed for various environments and net materials. The results of the study show the effects of solidity ratio of the net and vertical positions of the cage on the overall dynamic response of the system, confirming the viability of this type of configuration for future development of offshore aquaculture in deep waters.
Dynamics of Submersible Mussel Rafts in Waves and Current
WANG Xin-xin, M. Robinson SWIFT, Tobias DEWHURST, Igor TSUKROV, Barbaros CELIKKOL, Carter NEWELL
2015, (3): 431-444.
To investigate the dynamics of submersible mussel rafts, the finite element program Aqua-FE?, developed by the University of New Hampshire (UNH), was applied to rafts moored at the surface and submerged. The submerged configuration is used to reduce wave forcing and to avoid contact with floating ice during winters in northern waters. Each raft consists of three pontoons connected by a grid framework. Rafts are intended to support densely spaced mussel ropes hung from the framework. When submerged, the pontoons are flooded, and the raft is held vertically by floats attached by lines. The computer models were developed in Aqua-FE? to simulate the effects of waves and current. They were validated by comparison with wave tank results by use of a 1/10 scale raft physical model. Comparisons showed good agreement for the important heave (vertical) and pitch (rotational) motions, though there was a tendency towards conservative results for wave and current drag. Full-scale simulations of surface and submerged single raft and two rafts connected in tandem were performed. Submerged raft wave response was found to be reduced relative to that at the surface for both the single and two-raft configurations. In particular, the vertical motion of mussel rope connection points was significantly reduced by submergence, resulting in reduced potential for mussel drop-off. For example, the maximum vertical velocities of mussel rope attachment points in the submerged two raft case were 7%?20% of the corresponding velocities when at the surface.
Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study of the Effects of Disposal Space on the Flow Field Around the Combined Three-Tube Reefs
ZHENG Yan-xuan, LIANG Zhen-lin, GUAN Chang-tao, SONG Xie-fa, LI Jiao, CUI Yong, LI Qiang, ZHOU You
2015, (3): 445-458.
The artificial reefs placed on the seabed with different layouts and disposal spaces will produce variational flow field. The intensity and scale of the combined three-tube artificial reefs with different layouts at five Reynolds numbers (Re) are numerically investigated by use of the RNG k?ε turbulent model and SIMPLEC algorithm. A stationary no-slip boundary condition is used on the models and the bottoms, and the free surface is treated as a “moving wall” with zero shear force and the same velocity with inflow. In order to validate the simulation results, a particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiment is carried out to analyze the flow field. The numerical simulation results are consistent with the data obtained from experiment. The corresponding errors are all below 20%. Based on the validation, the effects of disposal space on flow field are simulated and analyzed. According to the simulation, in a parallel combination, a better artificial reef effect is obtained when the disposal space between two parallel reefs is 1.0L (L is the length of the combined three-tube reef model). In a vertical combination, when the disposal space between two vertical reefs is 1.0L to 2.0L, the artificial reef effect is better.
Comparative Study of Two Approaches to Model the Offshore Fish Cages
ZHAO Yun-peng, WANG Xin-xin, Jud DECEW, Igor TSUKROV, BAI Xiao-dong, BI Chun-wei
2015, (3): 459-472.
The goal of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of two commonly used approaches to discretize offshore fish cages: the lumped-mass approach and the finite element technique. Two case studies are chosen to compare predictions of the LMA (lumped-mass approach) and FEA (finite element analysis) based numerical modeling techniques. In both case studies, we consider several loading conditions consisting of different uniform currents and monochromatic waves. We investigate motion of the cage, its deformation, and the resultant tension in the mooring lines. Both model predictions are sufficient close to the experimental data, but for the first experiment, the DUT-FlexSim predictions are slightly more accurate than the ones provided by Aqua-FETM. According to the comparisons, both models can be successfully utilized to the design and analysis of the offshore fish cages provided that an appropriate safety factor is chosen.

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