ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2015 Vol.(4)

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Simulation of Storm Surge and Wave Due to Typhoon Isewan (5915)
Jin-Hee YUK, Kyeong Ok KIM, Han Soo LEE, Byung Ho CHOI
2015, (4): 473-488.
[Abstract](728)
Abstract:
An integrally coupled wave-tide-surge model was developed and then applied to the simulation of the wave-typhoon surge for the typhoon Isewan (typhoon Vera (5915)), which is the strongest typhoon that has struck Japan and caused incalculable damage. An integrally coupled tide-surge-wave model using identical and homogeneous meshes in an unstructured grid system was used to correctly resolve the physics of wave-circulation interaction in both models. All model components were validated independently. The storm surge and wave properties such as the surge height, the significant wave height, wave period and direction were reproduced reasonably under the meteorological forcing, which was reprocessed to be close to the observations. The resulting modeling system can be used extensively for the prediction of the storm surge and waves and the usual barotropic forecast.
Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses of the Simulated Seawater?Freshwater Mixing Zones in Steady-State Coastal Aquifers
ZHAO Zhong-wei, ZHAO Jian, XIN Pei, HUA Guo-fen, JIN Guang-qiu
2015, (4): 489-502.
[Abstract](626)
Abstract:
The uncertainty and sensitivity of predicted positions and thicknesses of seawater-freshwater mixing zones with respect to uncertainties of saturated hydraulic conductivity, porosity, molecular diffusivity, longitudinal and transverse dispersivities were investigated in both head-control and flux-control inland boundary systems. It shows that uncertainties and sensitivities of predicted results vary in different boundary systems. With the same designed matrix of uncertain factors in simulation experiments, the variance of predicted positions and thickness in the flux-control system is much larger than that predicted in the head-control system. In a head-control system, the most sensitive factors for the predicted position of the mixing zone are inland freshwater head and transverse dispersivity. However, the predicted position of the mixing zone is more sensitive to saturated hydraulic conductivity in a flux-control system. In a head-control system, the most sensitive factors for the predicted thickness of the mixing zone include transverse dispersivity, molecular diffusivity, porosity, and longitudinal dispersivity, but the predicted thickness is more sensitive to the saturated hydraulic conductivity in a flux-control system. These findings improve our understandings for the development of seawater?freshwater mixing zone during seawater intrusion processes, and give technical support for groundwater resource management in coastal aquifers.
Fully Nonlinear Boussinesq-Type Equations with Optimized Parameters for Water Wave Propagation
JING Hai-xiao, LIU Chang-gen, LONG Wen, TAO Jian-hua
2015, (4): 503-518.
[Abstract](646)
Abstract:
For simulating water wave propagation in coastal areas, various Boussinesq-type equations with improved properties in intermediate or deep water have been presented in the past several decades. How to choose proper Boussinesq-type equations has been a practical problem for engineers. In this paper, approaches of improving the characteristics of the equations, i.e. linear dispersion, shoaling gradient and nonlinearity, are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of several different Boussinesq-type equations are compared for the applications of these Boussinesq-type equations in coastal engineering with relatively large sea areas. Then for improving the properties of Boussinesq-type equations, a new set of fully nonlinear Boussinseq-type equations with modified representative velocity are derived, which can be used for better linear dispersion and nonlinearity. Based on the method of minimizing the overall error in different ranges of applications, sets of parameters are determined with optimized linear dispersion, linear shoaling and nonlinearity, respectively. Finally, a test example is given for validating the results of this study. Both results show that the equations with optimized parameters display better characteristics than the ones obtained by matching with padé approximation.
System Identification Modeling of Ship Manoeuvring Motion in 4 Degrees of Freedom Based on Support Vector Machines
WANG Xue-gang, ZOU Zao-jian, YU Long, CAI Wei
2015, (4): 519-534.
[Abstract](657)
Abstract:
Based on support vector machines, three modeling methods, i.e., white-box modeling, grey-box modeling and black-box modeling of ship manoeuvring motion in 4 degrees of freedom are investigated. With the whole-ship mathematical model for ship manoeuvring motion, in which the hydrodynamic coefficients are obtained from roll planar motion mechanism test, some zigzag tests and turning circle manoeuvres are simulated. In the white-box modeling and grey-box modeling, the training data taken every 5 s from the simulated 20°/20° zigzag test are used, while in the black-box modeling, the training data taken every 5 s from the simulated 15°/15°, 20°/20° zigzag tests and 15°, 25° turning manoeuvres are used; and the trained support vector machines are used to predict the whole 20°/20° zigzag test. Comparisons between the simulated and predicted 20?/20° zigzag tests show good predictive ability of the proposed methods. Besides, all mathematical models obtained by the proposed modeling methods are used to predict the 10°/10° zigzag test and 35° turning circle manoeuvre, and the predicted results are compared with those of simulation tests to demonstrate the good generalization performance of the mathematical models. Finally, the proposed modeling methods are analyzed and compared with each other in aspects of application conditions, prediction accuracy and computation speed. The appropriate modeling method can be chosen according to the intended use of the mathematical models and the available data needed for system identification.
Numerical Study on the 3-D Complex Characteristics of Flow Around the Hull Structure of TLP
GU Jia-yang, ZHU Xin-yao, YANG Jian-min, LU Yan-xiang, XIAO Long-fei
2015, (4): 535-550.
[Abstract](654)
Abstract:
Vortex-induced motion is based on the complex characteristics of the flow around the tension leg platform (TLP) hull. By considering the flow field of the South China Sea and the configuration of the platform, three typical flow velocities and three flow directions are chosen to study the numerical simulation of the flow field characteristics around the TLP hull. Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations combined with the detached eddy simulation turbulence model are employed in the numerical study. The hydrodynamic coefficients of columns and pontoons, the total drag and lift coefficients of the TLP, the formation and development of the wake, and the vorticity iso-surfaces for different inlet velocities and current directions are discussed in this paper. The average value of the drag coefficient of the upstream columns is considerably larger than that of the downstream columns in the inlet direction of 0°. Although the time history of the lift coefficient demonstrates a “beating” behavior, the plot shows regularity in general. The Strouhal number decreases as the inlet velocity increases from the power spectral density plot at different flow velocities. The mean root values of the lift and drag coefficients of the front column decrease as the current direction increases. Under the symmetrical configuration of 45°, the streamwise force on C4 is the smallest, whereas the transverse force is the largest. The broken vortex conditions in current directions of 22.5° and 45° are more serious than that in the current direction of 0°. In addition, turbulence at the bottom of the TLP becomes stronger when the current direction changes from 0° to 45°. However, a high inlet velocity indicates a large region influenced by the broken vortex and shows the emergence of the wake behind the TLP under the same current angle.
Structural Topology Design of Container Ship Based on Knowledge-Based Engineering and Level Set Method
CUI Jin-ju, WANG De-yu, SHI Qi-qi
2015, (4): 551-564.
[Abstract](613)
Abstract:
Knowledge-Based Engineering (KBE) is introduced into the ship structural design in this paper. From the implementation of KBE, the design solutions for both Rules Design Method (RDM) and Interpolation Design Method (IDM) are generated. The corresponding Finite Element (FE) models are generated. Topological design of the longitudinal structures is studied where the Gaussian Process (GP) is employed to build the surrogate model for FE analysis. Multi-objective optimization methods inspired by Pareto Front are used to reduce the design tank weight and outer surface area simultaneously. Additionally, an enhanced Level Set Method (LSM) which employs implicit algorithm is applied to the topological design of typical bracket plate which is used extensively in ship structures. Two different sets of boundary conditions are considered. The proposed methods show satisfactory efficiency and accuracy.
Behavior of Pile Group with Elevated Cap Subjected to Cyclic Lateral Loads
CHEN Yun-min, GU Ming, CHEN Ren-peng, KONG Ling-gang, ZHANG Zhe-hang, BIAN Xue-cheng
2015, (4): 565-578.
[Abstract](672)
Abstract:
The pile group with elevated cap is widely used as foundation of offshore structures such as turbines, power transmission towers and bridge piers, and understanding its behavior under cyclic lateral loads induced by waves, tide water and winds, is of great importance to designing. A large-scale model test on 3×3 pile group with elevated cap subjected to cyclic lateral loads was performed in saturated silts. The preparation and implementation of the test is presented. Steel pipes with the outer diameter of 114 mm, thickness of 4.5 mm, and length of 6 m were employed as model piles. The pile group was cyclic loaded in a multi-stage sequence with the lateral displacement controlled. In addition, a single pile test was also conducted at the same site for comparison. The displacement of the pile cap, the internal forces of individual piles, and the horizontal stiffness of the pile group are presented and discussed in detail. The results indicate that the lateral cyclic loads have a greater impact on pile group than that on a single pile, and give rise to the significant plastic strain in the soil around piles. The lateral loads carried by each row of piles within the group would be redistributed with loading cycles. The lateral stiffness of the pile group decreases gradually with cycles and broadly presents three different degradation patterns in the test. Significant axial forces were measured out in some piles within the group, owing to the strong restraint provided by the cap, and finally lead to a large settlement of the pile group. These findings can be referred for foundation designing of offshore structures.
Application of Boundary Collocation Method to Two-dimensional Wave Propagation
CAO Xue-ling, YOU Ya-ge, SHENG Song-wei, PENG Wen, YE Yin
2015, (4): 579-587.
[Abstract](671)
Abstract:
Boundary Collocation Method (BCM) based on Eigenfunction Expansion Method (EEM), a new numerical method for solving two-dimensional wave problems, is developed. To verify the method, wave problems on a series of beaches with different geometries are solved, and the errors of the method are analyzed. The calculation firmly confirms that the results will be more precise if we choose more rational points on the beach. The application of BCM, available for the problems with irregular domains and arbitrary boundary conditions, can effectively avoid complex calculation and programming. It can be widely used in ocean engineering.
Research on Measurement of Bed Shear Stress Under Wave?Current Interaction
XU Hua, XIA Yun-feng, MA Bing-he, HAO Si-yu, ZHANG Shi-zhao, DU De-jun
2015, (4): 589-598.
[Abstract](641)
Abstract:
The movement of sediment in estuary and on coast is directly restricted by the bed shear stress. Therefore, the research on the basic problem of sediment movement by the bed shear stress is an important way to research the theory of sediment movement. However, there is not a measuring and computing method to measure the bed shear stress under a complicated dynamic effect like wave and current. This paper describes the measurement and test research on the bed shear stress in a long launder of direct current by the new instrument named thermal shearometer based on micro-nanotechnology. As shown by the research results, the thermal shearometer has a high response frequency and strong stability. The measured results can reflect the basic change of the bed shear stress under wave and wave?current effect, and confirm that the method of measuring bed shear stress under wave?current effect with thermal shearometer is feasible. Meanwhile, a preliminary method to compute the shear stress compounded by wave?current is put forward according to the tested and measured results, and then a reference for further study on the basic theory of sediment movement under a complicated dynamic effect is provided.
Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of A Human Occupied Vehicle Based on Bi-Level Integrated System Collaborative Optimization
ZHAO Min, CUI Wei-cheng, LI Xiang
2015, (4): 599-610.
[Abstract](634)
Abstract:
The design of Human Occupied Vehicle (HOV) is a typical multidisciplinary problem, but heavily dependent on the experience of naval architects at present engineering design. In order to relieve the experience dependence and improve the design, a new Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) method “Bi-Level Integrated System Collaborative Optimization (BLISCO)” is applied to the conceptual design of an HOV, which consists of hull module, resistance module, energy module, structure module, weight module, and the stability module. This design problem is defined by 21 design variables and 23 constraints, and its objective is to maximize the ratio of payload to weight. The results show that the general performance of the HOV can be greatly improved by BLISCO.
Theoretical and Experimental Study on the Acoustic Wave Energy After the Nonlinear Interaction of Acoustic Waves in Aqueous Media
LAN Chao-feng, LI Feng-chen, CHEN Huan, LU Di, YANG De-sen, ZHANG Meng
2015, (4): 611-621.
[Abstract](679)
Abstract:
Based on the Burgers equation and Manley?Rowe equation, the derivation about nonlinear interaction of the acoustic waves has been done in this paper. After nonlinear interaction among the low-frequency weak waves and the pump wave, the analytical solutions of acoustic waves’ amplitude in the field are deduced. The relationship between normalized energy of high-frequency and the change of acoustic energy before and after the nonlinear interaction of the acoustic waves is analyzed. The experimental results about the changes of the acoustic energy are presented. The study shows that new frequencies are generated and the energies of the low-frequency are modulated in a long term by the pump waves, which leads the energies of the low-frequency acoustic waves to change in the pulse trend in the process of the nonlinear interaction of the acoustic waves. The increase and decrease of the energies of the low-frequency are observed under certain typical conditions, which lays a foundation for practical engineering applications.
An Experimental Study on A Trapezoidal Pendulum Wave Energy Converter in Regular Waves
WANG Dong-jiao, QIU Shou-qiang, YE Jia-wei
2015, (4): 623-632.
[Abstract](694)
Abstract:
Experimental studies were conducted on a trapezoidal pendulum wave energy converter in regular waves. To obtain the incident wave height, the analytical method (AM) was used to separate the incident and reflected waves propagating in a wave flume by analysing wave records measured at two locations. The response amplitude operator (RAO), primary conversion efficiency and the total conversion efficiency of the wave energy converter were studied; furthermore, the power take-off damping coefficients corresponding to the load resistances in the experiment were also obtained. The findings demonstrate that the natural period for a pendulum wave energy converter is relatively large. A lower load resistance gives rise to a larger damping coefficient. The model shows relatively higher wave energy conversion efficiency in the range of 1.0?1.2 s for the incident wave period. The maximum primary conversion efficiency achieved was 55.5%, and the maximum overall conversion efficiency was 39.4%.

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