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Marine structures are mostly made of metals and always experience complex random loading during their service periods. The fatigue crack growth behaviors of metal materials have been proved from laboratory tests to be sensitive to the loading sequence encountered. In order to take account of the loading sequence effect, fatigue life prediction should be based on fatigue crack propagation (FCP) theory rather than the currently used cumulative fatigue damage (CFD) theory. A unified fatigue life prediction (UFLP) method for marine structures has been proposed by the authors’ group. In order to apply the UFLP method for newly designed structures, authorities such as the classification societies should provide a standardized load-time history (SLH) such as the TWIST and FALSTAFF sequences for transport and fighter aircraft. This paper mainly aims at proposing a procedure to generate the SLHs for marine structures based on a short-term loading sample and to provide an illustration on how to use the presented SLH to a typical tubular T-joint in an offshore platform based on the UFLP method.
Jacket cutting operation is one of the most complicated and highest risk operations in the process of decommissioning offshore piled platform, the security and stability of which must be assured. In this paper, the current research on offshore structure removal and jacket cutting is introduced, on the basis of which the types of load along with the load calculation method are determined. The main influences on the stability of a jacket in cutting are analyzed. The experiment test plan is drawn by using orthogonal testing method, and the formula of critical load during the cutting procedure is deduced by differential evolution algorithm. To verify the method and results of this paper, an offshore piled platform to be decommissioned in the South China Sea is taken for an example, and the detailed schedule for jacket cutting is made with the three-dimensional finite element model of the jacket established. The natural frequency, stress, strain and stability of the jacket during cutting process are calculated, which indicates that the results of finite element analysis agree well with that of the deduced formula. The result provides the scientific reference for guaranteeing the safety of jacket in cutting operation.
Impulse turbine, working as a typical self-rectifying turbine, is recently utilized for the oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converters, which can rotate in the same direction under the bi-directional air flows. A numerical model established in Fluent is validated by the corresponding experimental results. The flow fields, pressure distribution and dimensionless evaluating coefficients can be calculated and analyzed. Effects of the rotor solidity varying with the change of blade number are investigated and the suitable solidity value is recommended for different flow coefficients.
Laboratory tests were conducted on a flexible riser with and without helical strakes. The aim of the present work is to further understand the response performance of the vortex induced vibration (VIV) for a riser with helical strakes. The experiment was accomplished in the towing tank and the relative current was simulated by towing a flexible riser in one direction. Based on the modal analysis method, the displacement responses can be obtained by the measured strain. The strakes with different heights are analyzed here, and the response parameters like strain response and displacement response are studied. The experimental results show that the in-line (IL) response is as important as the cross-flow (CF) response, however, many industrial analysis methods usually ignore the IL response due to VIV. The results also indicate that the response characteristics of a bare riser can be quite distinct from that of a riser with helical strakes, and the response performance depends on the geometry on the helical strakes closely. The fatigue damage is further discussed and the results show that the fatigue damage in the CF direction is of the same order as that in the IL direction for the bare riser. However, for the riser with helical strakes, the fatigue damage in the CF direction is much smaller than that in the IL direction.
Steel catenary riser (SCR) is the transmission device between the seabed and the floating production facilities. As developments move into deeper water, the fatigue life of the riser can become critical to the whole production system, especially due to the vortex-induced vibration (VIV), which is the key factor to operational longevity. As a result, experimental investigation about VIV of the riser was performed in a large plane pool which is 60 m long, 36 m wide and 6.5 m deep. Experiments were developed to study the influence of current speed and seabed on VIV of SCR. The results show that amplitudes of strain and response frequencies increase with the current speed both in cross-flow (CF) and in-line (IL). When the current speed is high, multi-mode response is observed in the VIV motion. The amplitudes of strain in IL direction are not much smaller than those in CF direction. The seabed has influence on the response frequencies of riser and the positions of damage for riser.
There has been a growing trend in the development of offshore deep-water ports in China. For such deep sea projects, all-vertical-piled wharves are suitable structures and generally located in open waters, greatly affected by wave action. Currently, no systematic studies or simplified numerical methods are available for deriving the dynamic characteristics and dynamic responses of all-vertical-piled wharves under wave cyclic loads. In this article, we compare the dynamic characteristics of an all-vertical-piled wharf with those of a traditional inshore high-piled wharf through numerical analysis; our research reveals that the vibration period of an all-vertical-piled wharf under cyclic loading is longer than that of an inshore high-piled wharf and is much closer to the period of the loading wave. Therefore, dynamic calculation and analysis should be conducted when designing and calculating the characteristics of an all-vertical-piled wharf. We establish a dynamic finite element model to examine the dynamic response of an all-vertical-piled wharf under wave cyclic loads and compare the results with those under wave equivalent static load; the comparison indicates that dynamic amplification of the structure is evident when the wave dynamic load effect is taken into account. Furthermore, a simplified dynamic numerical method for calculating the dynamic response of an all-vertical-piled wharf is established based on the P-Y curve. Compared with finite element analysis, the simplified method is more convenient to use and applicable to large structural deformation while considering the soil non-linearity. We confirmed that the simplified method has acceptable accuracy and can be used in engineering applications.
The stability of the horizontal multidrain wells is a crucial issue and several factors are involved in this matter, including in-situ stresses, magnitude and distribution as well as the mainbore trajectories. In this paper, this issue is evaluated by assuming different circumstances for the above mentioned factors, based on finite difference three-dimensional modeling by using the finite difference numerical software, FLAC3D. The stability of the mainbore and lateral branches is analyzed based on the Normalized Yielded Zone Area (NYZA) criterion, i.e. the ratio of the surrounding yielded cross-sectional area to the initial area of the well. Optimum mud pressures are obtained in the mainbore and lateral branches in different mainbore trajectories under three in-situ stress regimes. In addition, the stability of the junction where the lateral branches are bifurcated from the mainbore is assessed in those situations. The optimum trajectory of the mainbore, in which the junction has obtained the most stable condition, is selected in each stress regime. It was concluded that in the Normal Faulting (NF) stress regime, the mainbore and junction stability varies in relation to the mainbore trajectories, inversely. However, in the other two stress regimes, i.e. Strike Slip (SS) and Reverse Faulting (RF), the variations of the mainbore and junction stability are in the same trend with respect to the mainbore trajectory deviations.
A fully automated optimization process is provided for the design of ducted propellers under open water conditions, including 3D geometry modeling, meshing, optimization algorithm and CFD analysis techniques. The developed process allows the direct integration of a RANSE solver in the design stage. A practical ducted propeller design case study is carried out for validation. Numerical simulations and open water tests are fulfilled and proved that the optimum ducted propeller improves hydrodynamic performance as predicted.
The observations on compressibility of reconstituted clays show that the compression line with a higher initial water content lies above the compression line with a lower initial water content for a given clay. Hence there exists additional void ratio due to initial water contents among virgin compression lines (VCLs) of reconstituted clays. In this paper, the difference in void ratio caused by different initial water contents is investigated based on the empirical equation proposed by Liu and Carter (2000) for describing the differential void ratio at the same stress between natural and reconstituted clays. The mechanism of compressibility of reconstituted clays, when the stress level is larger than the remolded yield stress, is also discussed.
It is difficult to compute far-field waves in a relative large area by using one wave generation model when a large calculation domain is needed because of large dimensions of the waterway and long distance of the required computing points. Variation of waterway bathymetry and nonlinearity in the far field cannot be included in a ship fixed process either. A coupled method combining a wave generation model and wave propagation model is then used in this paper to simulate the wash waves generated by the passing ship. A NURBS-based higher order panel method is adopted as the stationary wave generation model; a wave spectrum method and Boussinesq-type equation wave model are used as the wave propagation model for the constant water depth condition and variable water depth condition, respectively. The waves calculated by the NURBS-based higher order panel method in the near field are used as the input for the wave spectrum method and the Boussinesq-type equation wave model to obtain the far-field waves. With this approach it is possible to simulate the ship wash waves including the effects of water depth and waterway bathymetry. Parts of the calculated results are validated experimentally, and the agreement is demonstrated. The effects of ship wash waves on the moored ship are discussed by using a diffraction theory method. The results indicate that the prediction of the ship induced waves by coupling models is feasible.
This paper describes the design, construction and preliminary test results for a gas-tight serial sampler intended to be deployed at seafloor for long-term operation to take time-series fluid samples from deep-sea environments such as cold seeps, water column and hydrothermal vents. The serial sampler is a modular system that is based on independent and identical sampling modules, which are designed to collect six 160 ml gas-tight fluid samples maintained at high pressure to a depth of 4000 meters. With two working modes, the sampler can be deployed either with seafloor cabled observatory for remote control or as a stand-alone device for autonomous operation. A prototype of the instrument has been constructed and tested on the MARS cabled observatory for two months. The laboratory and field tests proved the success of the design and construction of the serial sampler, and indicated the potential for future ocean sciences.
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- Volume 34
- Issue 1
- February 2020
- Superintended by:
CHINA ASSOCIATION FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
- Sponsored by:
Chinese Ocean Engineering Society （COES）
- Edited by:
Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute
Adaptive Predictive Inverse Control of Offshore Jacket Platform Based on Rough Neural Network
Numerical Simulation of Water Exchange Characteristics of the Jiaozhou Bay Based on A Three-Dimensional Lagrangian Model
A Global Reliability Assessment Method on Aging Offshore Platforms with Corrosion and Cracks