ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2015 Vol.(6)

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Analytical and Experimental Studies on Hydrodynamic Performance of Semi-Immersed Jarlan-Type Perforated Breakwaters
LIU Yong, YAO Zhuo-lin, LI Hua-jun
2015, (6): 793-806.
The present study proposes a new semi-immersed Jarlan-type perforated breakwater including a perforated front wall, a solid rear wall, and a horizontal perforated plate connecting the lower tips of the two walls. An analytical solution is developed to estimate the hydrodynamic performance of the new breakwater. The analytical solution is confirmed by solutions for special cases, an independently developed multi-domain boundary element method solution and experimental data. Numerical examples based on the analytical solution indicate that compared with previous semi-immersed breakwaters, the new breakwater may have better wave-absorbing performance and smaller wave forces. Some useful results are presented for practical designs of semi-immersed Jarlan-type perforated breakwaters.
Nonlinear Dynamic Behaviors of A Floating Structure in Focused Waves
CAO Fei-feng, ZHAO Xi-zeng
2015, (6): 807-820.
Floating structures are commonly seen in coastal and offshore engineering. They are often subjected to extreme waves and, therefore, their nonlinear dynamic behaviors are of great concern. In this paper, an in-house CFD code is developed to investigate the accurate prediction of nonlinear dynamic behaviors of a two-dimensional (2-D) box-shaped floating structure in focused waves. Computations are performed by an enhanced Constrained Interpolation Profile (CIP)-based Cartesian grid model, in which a more accurate VOF (Volume of Fluid) method, the THINC/SW scheme (THINC: tangent of hyperbola for interface capturing; SW: Slope Weighting), is used for interface capturing. A focusing wave theory is used for the focused wave generation. The wave component of constant steepness is chosen. Comparisons between predictions and physical measurements show good agreement including body motions and free surface profiles. Although the overall agreement is good, some discrepancies are observed for impact pressure on the superstructure due to water on deck. The effect of grid resolution on the results is checked. With a fine grid, no obvious improvement is seen in the global body motions and impact pressures due to water on deck. It is concluded that highly nonlinear phenomena, such as distorted free surface, large-amplitude body motions, and violent impact flow, have been predicted successfully.
Theoretical Analysis of Harbor Resonance in Harbor with An Exponential Bottom Profile
WANG Gang, ZHENG Jin-hai, LIANG Qiu-hua, ZHANG Wei, HUANG Cheng
2015, (6): 821-834.
The general features of oscillations within a rectangular harbor of exponential bottom are investigated analytically. Based on the linear shallow water approximation, analytical solutions for longitudinal oscillations induced by the incident perpendicular wave are obtained by the method of matched asymptotics. The analytic results show that the resonant frequencies are shifted to larger values as the water depth increases and the oscillation amplitudes are enhanced due to the shoaling effect. Owing to the refraction effect, there could be several transverse oscillation modes existing in when the width of the harbor is on the order of the oscillation wavelength. These transverse oscillations are similar to standing edge waves, and there are m node lines in the longshore direction and n node lines running in the offshore direction corresponding to mode (n, m). Furthermore, the transverse eigen frequency is not only related to the width of the harbor, but also to the boundary condition at the backwall and the bottom shape.
Experiment Study of Dynamics Response for Wind Turbine System of Floating Foundation
TANG You-gang, SONG Kai, WANG Bin
2015, (6): 835-846.
The floating foundation is designed to support a 1.5 MW wind turbine in 30 m water depth. With consideration of the viscous damping of foundation and heave plates, the amplitude-frequency response characteristics of the foundation are studied. By taking into account the elastic effect of blades and tower, the classic quasi-steady blade-element/momentum (BEM) theory is used to calculate the aerodynamic elastic loads. A coupled dynamic model of the turbine-foundation- mooring lines is established to calculate the motion response of floating foundation under Kaimal wind spectrum and regular wave by using the FAST codes. The model experiment is carried out to test damping characteristics and natural motion behaviors of the wind turbine system. The dynamics response is tested by considering only waves and the joint action of wind and waves. It is shown that the wind turbine system can avoid resonances under the action of wind and waves. In addition, the heave motion of the floating foundation is induced by waves and the surge motion is induced by wind. The action of wind and waves is of significance for pitch.
Initial Dilution of A Vertical Round Non-Buoyant Jet in Wavy Cross-Flow Environment
WANG Ya-na, CHEN Yong-ping, XU Zhen-shan, PAN Yi, ZHANG Chang-kuan, LI Chi-wai
2015, (6): 847-858.
The phenomenon of wastewater discharged into coastal waters can be simplified as a turbulent jet under the effect of waves and currents. Previous studies have been carried out to investigate the jet behaviors under the current only or the wave only environment. To gain obtain better understanding of the jet behaviors in a realistic situation, a series of physical experiments on the initial dilution of a vertical round jet in the wavy cross-flow environment are conducted. The diluted processes of the jet are recorded by a high-resolution camcorder and the concentration fields of the jet are measured with a peristaltic suction pumping system. When the jet is discharged into the wavy cross-flow environment, a distinctive phenomenon, namely “effluent clouds”, is observed. According to the quantitative measurements, the jet width in the wavy cross-flow environment increases more significantly than that does in the cross-flow only environment, indicating that the waves impose a positive effect on the enhancement of jet initial dilution. In order to generalize the experimental findings, a comprehensive velocity scale ua and a characteristic length scale l are introduced. Through dimensional analysis, it is found that the dimensionless centerline concentration trajectories is in proportional to 1/3 power of the dimensionless downstream distance , and the dimensionless centerline dilution is proportional to the square of the dimensionless centerline trajectory . Several empirical equations are then derived by using the Froude number of cross-flow Frc as a reference coefficient. This paper provides a better understanding and new estimations of the jet initial dilution under the combined effect of waves and cross-flow current.
Underwater Terrain Positioning Method Based on Least Squares Estimation for AUV
CHEN Peng-yun, LI Ye, SU Yu-min, CHEN Xiao-long, JIANG Yan-qing
2015, (6): 859-874.
To achieve accurate positioning of autonomous underwater vehicles, an appropriate underwater terrain database storage format for underwater terrain-matching positioning is established using multi-beam data as underwater terrain-matching data. An underwater terrain interpolation error compensation method based on fractional Brownian motion is proposed for defects of normal terrain interpolation, and an underwater terrain-matching positioning method based on least squares estimation (LSE) is proposed for correlation analysis of topographic features. The Fisher method is introduced as a secondary criterion for pseudo localization appearing in a topographic features flat area, effectively reducing the impact of pseudo positioning points on matching accuracy and improving the positioning accuracy of terrain flat areas. Simulation experiments based on electronic chart and multi-beam sea trial data show that drift errors of an inertial navigation system can be corrected effectively using the proposed method. The positioning accuracy and practicality are high, satisfying the requirement of underwater accurate positioning.
Mechanical Behavior and Shape Optimization of Lining Structure for Subsea Tunnel Excavated in Weathered Slot
LI Peng-fei, ZHOU Xiao-jun
2015, (6): 875-890.
Subsea tunnel lining structures should be designed to sustain the loads transmitted from surrounding ground and groundwater during excavation. Extremely high pore-water pressure reduces the effective strength of the country rock that surrounds a tunnel, thereby lowering the arching effect and stratum stability of the structure. In this paper, the mechanical behavior and shape optimization of the lining structure for the Xiang’an tunnel excavated in weathered slots are examined. Eight cross sections with different geometric parameters are adopted to study the mechanical behavior and shape optimization of the lining structure. The hyperstatic reaction method is used through finite element analysis software ANSYS. The mechanical behavior of the lining structure is evidently affected by the geometric parameters of cross- sectional shape. The minimum safety factor of the lining structure elements is set to be the objective function. The efficient tunnel shape to maximize the minimum safety factor is identified. The minimum safety factor increases significantly after optimization. The optimized cross section significantly improves the mechanical characteristics of the lining structure and effectively reduces its deformation. Force analyses of optimization process and program are conducted parametrically so that the method can be applied to the optimization design of other similar structures. The results obtained from this study enhance our understanding of the mechanical behavior of the lining structure for subsea tunnels. These results are also beneficial to the optimal design of lining structures in general.
Damage Identification of A TLP Floating Wind Turbine by Meta-Heuristic Algorithms
M. M. Ettefagh
2015, (6): 891-902.
Damage identification of the offshore floating wind turbine by vibration/dynamic signals is one of the important and new research fields in the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). In this paper a new damage identification method is proposed based on meta-heuristic algorithms using the dynamic response of the TLP (Tension-Leg Platform) floating wind turbine structure. The Genetic Algorithms (GA), Artificial Immune System (AIS), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) are chosen for minimizing the object function, defined properly for damage identification purpose. In addition to studying the capability of mentioned algorithms in correctly identifying the damage, the effect of the response type on the results of identification is studied. Also, the results of proposed damage identification are investigated with considering possible uncertainties of the structure. Finally, for evaluating the proposed method in real condition, a 1/100 scaled experimental setup of TLP Floating Wind Turbine (TLPFWT) is provided in a laboratory scale and the proposed damage identification method is applied to the scaled turbine.
Estimation of Sediment Transport with An in-situ Acoustic Retrieval Algorithm in the High-Turbidity Changjiang Estuary, China
GE Jian-zhong, DING Ping-xing, LI Cheng, FAN Zhong-ya, SHEN Fang, KONG Ya-zhen
2015, (6): 903-915.
A comprehensive acoustic retrieval algorithm to investigate suspended sediment is presented with the combined validations of Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and Optical Backscattering Sensor (OBS) monitoring along seven cross-channel sections in the high-turbidity North Passage of the Changjiang Estuary, China. The realistic water conditions, horizontal and vertical salinities, and grain size of the suspended sediment are considered in the retrieval algorithm. Relations between net volume scattering of sound attenuation (Sv) due to sediments and ADCP echo intensity (E) were obtained with reasonable accuracy after applying the linear regression method. In the river mouth, an intensive vertical stratification and horizontal inhomogeneity were found, with a higher concentration of sediment in the North Passage and a lower concentration in the North Channel and South Passage. Additionally, The North Passage is characterized by higher sediment concentration in the middle region and lower concentration in the entrance and outlet areas. The maximum sediment flux rate, occurred in the middle region, could reach 6.3×105 and 1.5×105 t/h during the spring and neap tide, respectively. Retrieved sediment fluxes in the middle region are significantly larger than that in the upstream and downstream region. This strong sediment imbalance along the main channel indicates potential secondary sediment supply from southern Jiuduansha Shoals.
A Piston-Type Active Absorbing Wavemaker System with Delay Compensation
YANG Hong-qi, LI Mu-guo, LIU Shu-xue, ZHANG Qun, WANG Jing
2015, (6): 917-924.
Physical model tests with highly reflective structures often encounter a problem of multiple reflections between the structures and the wavemaker. This paper presents a piston-type active absorbing wavemaker system which can absorb most of the reflections. Based on the first-order wavemaker theory, a frequency domain absorption transfer function is modeled. Its time realization can be achieved by designing an IIR digital filter, which is used to control the absorbing wavemaker system. In a real system, time delays often exist in the wave making process. Thus a delay compensation term to the transfer function is proposed. Experimental results show that the system performs well for both regular and irregular waves with periods from 0.6 s to 2.0 s, and the absorption capability is larger than 96.5% at target wave fields.
Preparation and Properties of Embeddable Ag/AgCl Gelling Reference Electrode for Rebars Corrosion Monitoring in Concrete
TANG Yan-bing, WANG Sheng-nian, CHEN Long, FAN Zhi-hong
2015, (6): 925-932.
Reference electrodes are a key part for corrosion monitoring and measurement of rebars in concrete. A reference electrode that can be buried in concrete is fabricated by using Ag/AgCl electrode and methyl cellulose gelling electrolyte. The stability, repeatability and anti-polarization of the reference electrode are investigated; the influences of the inner electrolyte loss, exterior OH? contamination, and temperature on the potential of the reference electrode are also investigated in this paper. The results show that the reference electrode has good stability, repeatability, and anti- polarization. The influences of inner electrolyte loss, exterior OH? contamination, and temperature on the potential of the reference electrode are minimal. Therefore, it can be used for corrosion monitoring and measurement of rebars in concrete.
Altimetric Algorithm and Errors of Ocean Altimetry Using GNSS Reflection Signals
GUO Jin-yun, WANG Shu-yang, LIU Xin, WANG Jian-bo, CHANG Xiao-tao
2015, (6): 933-944.
As a new remote sensing technology, the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) reflection signals can be used to collect the information of ocean surface wind, surface roughness and sea surface height. Ocean altimetry based on GNSS reflection technique is of low cost and it is easy to obtain large amounts of data thanks to the global navigation satellite constellation. We can estimate the sea surface height as well as the position of the specular reflection point. This paper focuses on the study of the algorithm to determine the specular reflection point and altimetry equations to estimate the sea surface height over the reflection region. We derive the error equation of sea surface height based on the error propagation theory. Effects of the Doppler shift and the size of the glistening zone on the altimetry are discussed and analyzed at the same time. Finally, we calculate the sea surface height based on the simulated GNSS data within the whole day and verify the sea surface height errors according to the satellite elevation angles. The results show that the sea surface height can reach the precision of 6 cm for elevation angles of 55° to 90°, and the theoretical error and the calculated error are in good agreement.

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