ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2016 Vol.(1)

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Numerical Analyses of Caisson Breakwaters on Soft Foundations Under Wave Cyclic Loading
WANG Yuan-zhan, YAN Zhen, WANG Yu-chi
2016, (1): 1-18.
A caisson breakwater is built on soft foundations after replacing the upper soft layer with sand. This paper presents a dynamic finite element method to investigate the strength degradation and associated pore pressure development of the intercalated soft layer under wave cyclic loading. By combining the undrained shear strength with the empirical formula of overconsolidation clay produced by unloading and the development model of pore pressure, the dynamic degradation law that describes the undrained shear strength as a function of cycle number and stress level is derived. Based on the proposed dynamic degradation law and M-C yield criterion, a dynamic finite element method is numerically implemented to predict changes in undrained shear strength of the intercalated soft layer by using the general-purpose FEM software ABAQUS, and the accuracy of the method is verified. The effects of cycle number and amplitude of the wave force on the degradation of the undrained shear strength of the intercalated soft layer and the associated excess pore pressure response are investigated by analyzing an overall distribution and three typical sections underneath the breakwater. By comparing the undrained shear strength distributions obtained by the static method and the quasi-static method with the undrained shear strength distributions obtained by the dynamic finite element method in the three typical sections, the superiority of the dynamic finite element method in predicting changes in undrained shear strength is demonstrated.
Prediction of Seaward Slope Recession in Berm Breakwaters Using M5' Machine Learning Approach
Alireza Sadat Hosseini, Mehdi Shafieefar
2016, (1): 19-32.
In the design process of berm breakwaters, their front slope recession has an inevitable rule in large number of model tests, and this parameter being studied. This research draws its data from Moghim’s and Shekari’s experiment results. These experiments consist of two different 2D model tests in two wave flumes, in which the berm recession to different sea state and structural parameters have been studied. Irregular waves with a JONSWAP spectrum were used in both test series. A total of 412 test results were used to cover the impact of sea state conditions such as wave height, wave period, storm duration and water depth at the toe of the structure, and structural parameters such as berm elevation from still water level, berm width and stone diameter on berm recession parameters. In this paper, a new set of equations for berm recession is derived using the M5' model tree as a machine learning approach. A comparison is made between the estimations by the new formula and the formulae recently given by other researchers to show the preference of new M5' approach.
Numerical Simulation of Installation Process and Uplift Resistance for An Integrated Suction Foundation in Deep Ocean
LI Ying, YANG Shu-geng, YU Shu-ming
2016, (1): 33-46.
A concept design, named integrated suction foundation, is proposed for a tension leg platform (TLP) in deep ocean. The most important improvement in comparing with the traditional one is that a pressure-resistant storage module is designed. It utilizes the high hydrostatic pressure in deep ocean to drive water into the module to generate negative pressure for bucket suction. This work aims to further approve the feasibility of the concept design in the aspect of penetration installation and the uplift force in-place. Seepage is generated during suction penetration, and can have both positive and negative effects on penetration process. To study the effect of seepage on the penetration process of the integrated suction foundation, finite element analysis (FEA) is carried out in this work. In particular, an improved methodology to calculate the penetration resistance is proposed for the integrated suction foundation with respect to the reduction factor of penetration resistance. The maximum allowable negative pressure during suction penetration is calculated with the critical hydraulic gradient method through FEA. The simulation results of the penetration process show that the integrated suction foundation can be installed safely. Moreover, the uplift resistance of the integrated suction foundation is calculated and the feasibility of the integrated suction foundation working on-site is verified. In all, the analysis in this work further approves the feasibility of the integrated suction foundation for TLPs in deep ocean applications.
Laboratory Measurements of Vortex- and Wake-Induced Vibrations of A Tandem Arrangement of Two Flexible Risers
LIU Huai-zeng, WANG Fei, JIANG Guo-sheng, GUO Hai-yan, LI Xiao-min
2016, (1): 47-56.
The dynamic response of two flexible model risers in tandem arrangement immersed in a stepped current was analyzed. The risers, with an external diameter of 20 mm and a total length of 6200 mm, had an aspect ratio of 310. They were hinged to the support structure at the center-to-center distances away 3?12 times the external diameter. The top 1200 mm was exposed to a uniform current at a speed which was up to 0.9 m/s (the Reynolds number was 18000) and the rest in still water. The dynamic responses, which were obtained through the Fiber Bragg Grating strain gauges mounted on the surface, were analyzed by studying the cross-flow amplitudes and modal weights. The cross-flow vibration were observed up to the third mode, and the modal transformation from the second mode to the third mode was clearly observed. The experiment confirmed that the typical vortex-induced vibration (VIV) had occurred on the up-stream riser. But for the down-stream riser, the main excitation mechanism was wake-induced vibration (WIV). The modal transformation of WIV was more complex than that of VIV, which might be helpful for other researchers to study the interference effect.
Numerical Investigation of Submarine Hydrodynamics and Flow Field in Steady Turn
CAO Liu-shuai, ZHU Jun, WAN Wen-bin
2016, (1): 57-68.
This paper presents numerical simulations of viscous flow past a submarine model in steady turn by solving the Reynolds-Averaged Navier?Stokes Equations (RANSE) for incompressible, steady flows. The rotating coordinate system was adopted to deal with the rotation problem. The Coriolis force and centrifugal force due to the computation in a body-fixed rotating frame of reference were treated explicitly and added to momentum equations as source terms. Furthermore, velocities of entrances were coded to give the correct magnitude and direction needed. Two turbulence closure models (TCMs), the RNG model with wall functions and curvature correction and the Shear Stress Transport (SST) model without the use of wall functions, but with curvature correction and low-Re correction were introduced, respectively. Take DARPA SUBOFF model as the test case, a series of drift angle varying between 0° and 16° at a Reynolds number of 6.53×106 undergoing rotating arm test simulations were conducted. The computed forces and moment as a function of drift angle during the steady turn are mostly in close agreement with available experimental data. Though the difference between the pressure coefficients around the hull form was observed, they always show the same trend. It was demonstrated that using sufficiently fine grids and advanced turbulence models will lead to accurate prediction of the flow field as well as the forces and moments on the hull.
Failure Pressure Analysis of Corroded Moderate-to-High Strength Pipelines
SU Chen-liang, LI Xin, ZHOU Jing
2016, (1): 69-82.
Based on the elastic-plastic, large-deformation finite element method, burst capacity of steel pipeline with longitudinal corrosion defect subjected to internal pressure is studied. The appropriate stress-based criterion is used to predict the failure pressure of finite element model of corroded pipeline under internal pressure. By considering the pipe steel grades and geometries of corrosion defects, a series of finite element analyses is conducted. The effects of corrosion depth, length and width on burst capacity are also discussed. A specific failure pressure solution for the assessment of corrosion defects in moderate-to-high strength pipeline is proposed on the base of numerical results. The failure pressures predicted by the proposed method are in better agreement with the experimental results than the results by the other methods.
Numerical and Experimental Study of the 3D Effect on Connecting Arm of Vertical Axis Tidal Current Turbine
GUO Wei, KANG Hai-gui, CHEN Bing, XIE Yu, WANG Yin
2016, (1): 83-96.
Vertical axis tidal current turbine is a promising device to extract energy from ocean current. One of the important components of the turbine is the connecting arm, which can bring about a significant effect on the pressure distribution along the span of the turbine blade, herein we call it 3D effect. However, so far the effect is rarely reported in the research, moreover, in numerical simulation. In the present study, a 3D numerical model of the turbine with the connecting arm was developed by using FLUENT software compiling the UDF (User Defined Function) command. The simulation results show that the pressure distribution along the span of blade with the connecting arm model is significantly different from those without the connecting arm. To facilitate the validation of numerical model, the laboratory experiment has been carried out by using three different types of NACA aerofoil connecting arm and circle section connecting arm. And results show that the turbine with NACA0012 connecting arm has the best start-up performance which is 0.346 m/s and the peak point of power conversion coefficient is around 0.33. A further study has been performed and a conclusion is drawn that the aerofoil and thickness of connecting arm are the most important factors on the power conversion coefficient of the vertical axis tidal current turbine.
Dynamic Responses of A Semi-Type Offshore Floating Wind Turbine During Normal State and Emergency Shutdown
HU Zhi-qiang, LI Liang, WANG Jin, HU Qiu-hao, SHEN Ma-cheng
2016, (1): 97-112.
This paper addresses joint wind-wave induced dynamic responses of a semi-type offshore floating wind turbine (OFWT) under normal states and fault event conditions. The analysis in this paper is conducted in time domain, using an aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation code-FAST. Owing to the unique viscous features of the reference system, the original viscous damping model implemented in FAST is replaced with a quadratic one to gain an accurate capture of viscous effects. Simulation cases involve free-decay motion in still water, steady motions in the presence of regular waves and wind as well as dynamic response in operational sea states with and without wind. Simulations also include the cases for transient responses induced by fast blade pitching after emergency shutdown. The features of platform motions, local structural loads and a typical mooring line tension force under a variety of excitations are obtained and investigated.
An Artificial Neural Network-Based Response Surface Method for Reliability Analyses of c-? Slopes with Spatially Variable Soil
SHU Su-xun, GONG Wen-hui
2016, (1): 113-122.
This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN)-based response surface method that can be used to predict the failure probability of c-? slopes with spatially variable soil. In this method, the Latin hypercube sampling technique is adopted to generate input datasets for establishing an ANN model; the random finite element method is then utilized to calculate the corresponding output datasets considering the spatial variability of soil properties; and finally, an ANN model is trained to construct the response surface of failure probability and obtain an approximate function that incorporates the relevant variables. The results of the illustrated example indicate that the proposed method provides credible and accurate estimations of failure probability. As a result, the obtained approximate function can be used as an alternative to the specific analysis process in c-? slope reliability analyses.
Propagation Mechanisms of Incident Tsunami Wave in Jiangsu Coastal Area, Caused by Eastern Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011
YUAN Chun-guang, WANG Yi-gang, HUANG Hui-ming, CHEN Cheng, CHEN Da-ke
2016, (1): 123-136.
At 13:46 on March 11, 2011 (Beijing time), an earthquake of Mw=9.0 occurred in Japan. By comparing the tsunami data from Guanhekou marine station with other tsunami wave observation gathered from southeast coastal area of China, it was evident that, only in Guanhekou, the position of the maximum wave height appeared in the middle part rather than in the front of the tsunami wave train. A numerical model of tsunami propagation based on 2-D nonlinear shallow water equations was built to study the impact range and main causes of the special tsunami waveform discovered in Jiangsu coastal area. The results showed that nearly three-quarters of the Jiangsu coastal area, mainly comprised the part north of the radial sand ridges, reached its maximum tsunami wave height in the middle part of the wave train. The main cause of the special waveform was the special underwater topography condition of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea area, which influenced the tsunami propagation and waveform significantly. Although land boundary reflection brought an effect on the position of the maximum wave height to a certain extent, as the limits of the incident waveform and distances between the observation points and shore, it was not the dominant influence factor of the special waveform. Coriolis force’s impact on the tsunami waves was so weak that it was not the main cause for the special phenomenon in Jiangsu coastal area. The study reminds us that the most destructive wave might not appear in the first one in tsunami wave train.
Numerical Wave Tank Based on A Conserved Wave-Absorbing Method
HU Zhe, TANG Wen-yong, XUE Hong-xiang, ZHANG Xiao-ying
2016, (1): 137-148.
Recently the numerical wave tank has become a widely-used tool to study waves as well as wave-structure interactions, and the wave-absorbing method is very important as its effect on the quality of waves generated. The relaxation method and the derived momentum source method are often utilized, however, the damping weight is constant during calculation and repeated trials are required to obtain an acceptable wave-absorbing effect. To address the above- mentioned issues, a conserved wave-absorbing method is developed. The damping weight is determined by solving the mass conservation equation of the absorbing region at every time step. Based on this method, a two-dimensional numerical wave tank is established by using the VB language to simulate various waves by which the validation of this method is evaluated.
Application of Linear Mean-Square Estimation in Ocean Engineering
WANG Li-ping, CHEN Bai-yu, CHEN Chao, CHEN Zheng-shou, LIU Gui-lin
2016, (1): 149-160.
The attempt to obtain long-term observed data around some sea areas we concern is usually very hard or even impossible in practical offshore and ocean engineering situations. In this paper, by means of linear mean-square estimation method, a new way to extend short-term data to long-term ones is developed. The long-term data about concerning sea areas can be constructed via a series of long-term data obtained from neighbor oceanographic stations, through relevance analysis of different data series. It is effective to cover the insufficiency of time series prediction method’s overdependence upon the length of data series, as well as the limitation of variable numbers adopted in multiple linear regression model. The storm surge data collected from three oceanographic stations located in Shandong Peninsula are taken as examples to analyze the number-selection effect of reference oceanographic stations (adjacent to the concerning sea area) and the correlation coefficients between sea sites which are selected for reference and for engineering projects construction respectively. By comparing the N-year return-period values which are calculated from observed raw data and processed data which are extended from finite data series by means of the linear mean-square estimation method, one can draw a conclusion that this method can give considerably good estimation in practical ocean engineering, in spite of different extreme value distributions about raw and processed data.

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