ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2016 Vol.(2)

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A Novel Control Algorithm for Interaction Between Surface Waves and A Permeable Floating Structure
2016, (2): 161-176.
An analytical solution is undertaken to describe the wave-induced flow field and the surge motion of a permeable platform structure with fuzzy controllers in an oceanic environment. In the design procedure of the controller, a parallel distributed compensation (PDC) scheme is utilized to construct a global fuzzy logic controller by blending all local state feedback controllers. A stability analysis is carried out for a real structure system by using Lyapunov method. The corresponding boundary value problems are then incorporated into scattering and radiation problems. They are analytically solved, based on separation of variables, to obtain series solutions in terms of the harmonic incident wave motion and surge motion. The dependence of the wave-induced flow field and its resonant frequency on wave characteristics and structure properties including platform width, thickness and mass has been thus drawn with a parametric approach. From which mathematical models are applied for the wave-induced displacement of the surge motion. A nonlinearly inverted pendulum system is employed to demonstrate that the controller tuned by swarm intelligence method can not only stabilize the nonlinear system, but has the robustness against external disturbance.
An Irregular Wave Generating Approach Based on naoe-FOAM-SJTU Solver
SHEN Zhi-rong, WAN De-cheng
2016, (2): 177-192.
In this paper, a wave generating approach for long-crest irregular waves in a numerical tank by our in-house solver naoe-FOAM-SJTU is presented. The naoe-FOAM-SJTU solver is developed using an open source tool kit, OpenFOAM. Reynolds-averaged Navier?Stokes (RANS) equations are chosen as governing equations and the volume of fluid (VOF) is employed to capture the two phases interface. Incoming wave group is generated by imposing the boundary conditions of the tank inlet. A spectrum based correction procedure is developed to make the measured spectrum approaching to the target spectrum. This procedure can automatically adjust the wave generation signal based on the measured wave elevation by wave height probe in numerical wave tank. After 3 to 4 iterations, the measured spectrum agrees well with the target one. In order to validate this method, several wave spectra are chosen and validated in the numerical wave tank, with comparison between the final measured and target spectra. In order to investigate a practical situation, a modified Wigley hull is placed in the wave tank with incoming irregular waves. The wave-induced heave and pitch motions are treated by Fourier analysis to obtain motion responses, showing good agreements with the measurements.
Longshore Currents over Barred Beach with Mild Slope
WANG Yan, ZOU Zhi-li
2016, (2): 193-204.
The laboratory experiment and numerical simulations of wave-driven longshore currents by random waves on barred beaches with slopes of 1:100 and 1:40 were conducted to investigate the bimodal feature of mean longshore currents, with emphasis on the location and ratio of two peaks of longshore currents. The location and ratio of two peaks are controlled by the sand bar. The influences of wave heights and beach slopes on the longshore currents are discussed. Numerical simulations were also performed to compute the measured velocity profile, with the emphasis on the effect of lateral mixing, bottom friction and surface rollers on numerical results.
Numerical Prediction of Hydrodynamic Forces on A Berthed Ship Induced by A Passing Ship in Different Waterway Geometries
WANG Hong-zhi, ZOU Zao-jian
2016, (2): 205-216.
An investigation has been conducted to quantify the effect of waterway geometry on the form and magnitude of forces and moment experienced by a berthed ship due to a passing ship. By using the dynamic mesh technique and solving the unsteady RANS equations in conjunction with a RNG k?ε turbulence model, numerical simulation of the three-dimensional unsteady viscous flow around a passing ship and a berthed ship in different waterway geometries is conducted, and the hydrodynamic forces and moment acting on the berthed ship are calculated. The proposed method is verified by comparing the numerical results with existing empirical curves and a selection of results from model scale experiments. The calculated interaction forces and moment are presented for six different waterway geometries. The magnitude of the peak values and the form of the forces and moment on the berthed ship for different cases are investigated to assess the effect of the waterway geometry. The results of present study can provide certain guidance on safe maneuvering of a ship passing by a berthed ship.
An Integrated Structural Strength Analysis Method for Spar Type Floating Wind Turbine
HU Zhi-qiang, LIU Yi, WANG Jin
2016, (2): 217-230.
An integrated structural strength analysis method for a Spar type floating wind turbine is proposed in this paper, and technical issues related to turbine structure modeling and stress combination are also addressed. The NREL-5MW “Hywind” Spar type wind turbine is adopted as study object. Time-domain dynamic coupled simulations are performed by a fully-coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic tool, FAST, on the purpose of obtaining the dynamic characteristics of the floating wind turbine, and determining parameters for design load cases of finite element calculation. Then design load cases are identified, and finite element analyses are performed for these design load cases. The structural stresses due to wave-induced loads and wind-induced loads are calculated, and then combined to assess the structural strength of the floating wind turbine. The feasibility of the proposed structural strength analysis method for floating wind turbines is then validated.
Ultimate Bending Capacity of Strain Hardening Steel Pipes
CHEN Yan-fei, ZHANG Juan, ZHANG Hong, LI Xin, CAO Jing
2016, (2): 231-241.
Based on Hencky’s total strain theory of plasticity, ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes can be determined analytically assuming an elastic-linear strain hardening material, the simplified analytical solution is proposed as well. Good agreement is observed when ultimate bending capacities obtained from analytical solutions are compared with experimental results from full-size tests of steel pipes. Parametric study conducted as part of this paper indicates that the strain hardening effect has significant influence on the ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes. It is shown that pipe considering strain hardening yields higher bending capacity than that of pipe assumed as elastic-perfectly plastic material. Thus, the ignorance of strain hardening effect, as commonly assumed in current codes, may underestimate the ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes. The solutions proposed in this paper are applicable in the design of offshore/onshore steel pipes, supports of offshore platforms and other tubular structural steel members.
Analytical and Numerical Models to Predict the Behavior of Unbonded Flexible Risers Under Torsion
REN Shao-fei, XUE Hong-xiang, TANG Wen-yong
2016, (2): 243-256.
This paper presents analytical and numerical models to predict the behavior of unbonded flexible risers under torsion. The analytical model takes local bending and torsion of tensile armor wires into consideration, and equilibrium equations of forces and displacements of layers are deduced. The numerical model includes lay angle, cross-sectional profiles of carcass, pressure armor layer and contact between layers. Abaqus/Explicit quasi-static simulation and mass scaling are adopted to avoid convergence problem and excessive computation time caused by geometric and contact nonlinearities. Results show that local bending and torsion of helical strips may have great influence on torsional stiffness, but stress related to bending and torsion is negligible; the presentation of anti-friction tapes may have great influence both on torsional stiffness and stress; hysteresis of torsion-twist relationship under cyclic loading is obtained by numerical model, which cannot be predicted by analytical model because of the ignorance of friction between layers.
Degradation and Mechanism of the Mechanics and Durability of Reinforced Concrete Slab in A Marine Environment
WU Sheng-xing, LIU Guan-guo, BIAN Han-bing, LV Wei-bo, JIANG Jian-hua
2016, (2): 257-270.
An experimental research was conducted to determine the corrosion and bearing capacity of a reinforced concrete (RC) slab at different ages in a marine environment. Results show that the development of corrosion-induced cracks on a slab in a marine environment can be divided into three stages according to crack morphology at the bottom of the slab. In the first stage, cracks appear. In the second stage, cracks develop from the edges to the middle of the slab. In the third stage, longitudinal and transverse corrosion-induced cracks coexist. The corrosion ratio of reinforcements nonlinearly increases with the age, and the relationship between the corrosion ratio of the reinforcements and the corrosion-induced crack width of the concrete is established. The flexural capacity of the corroded RC slab nonlinearly decreases with the age, and the model for the bearing capacity factor of the corroded RC slab is established. The mid-span deflection of the corroded RC slab that corresponds to the yield of the reinforcements linearly increases with the increase in corrosion ratio. Finally, the mechanisms of corrosion morphology and the degradation of the mechanical properties of an RC slab in a marine environment are discussed on the basis of the basic theories of steel corrosion in concrete and concrete structure design.
Trapping Mechanism of Submerged Ridge on Trans-oceanic Tsunami Propagation
ZHENG Jin-hai, XIONG Meng-jie, WANG Gang
2016, (2): 271-282.
Based on the linear shallow water equations, an analytic solution of trapped waves over a symmetric parabolic- profile submerged ridge is derived. The trapped waves act as propagating waves along the ridge and as standing waves across the ridge. The amplitude gets the maximum at the ridge top and decays gradually towards both sides. The decaying rate gets more gently with higher modes. Besides, an explicit first-order approximate dispersion relation is derived to simplify transcendental functions in the exact solution, which is useful to describe trapped waves over shallowly submerged ridges in reality. Furthermore, the trapping mechanism of the submerged ridge waveguides on the trans-oceanic tsunami propagation can be explained by the ray theory. A critical incident angle exists as a criterion to determine whether the wave is trapped. Besides, a trapped parameter γ is proposed to estimate the ratio of the energy trapped by the oceanic ridge if a tsunami is generated at its top.
Hybrid N-order Lagrangian Interpolation Eulerian?Lagrangian Method for Salinity Calculation
WU Yan-cheng, ZHU Shou-xian, ZHOU Lin, YOU Xiao-bao, ZHANG Wen-jing
2016, (2): 283-295.
The Eulerian?Lagrangian method (ELM) has been used by many ocean models as the solution of the advection equation, but the numerical error caused by interpolation imposes restriction on its accuracy. In the present study, hybrid N-order Lagrangian interpolation ELM (LiELM) is put forward in which the N-order Lagrangian interpolation is used at first, then the lower order Lagrangian interpolation is applied in the points where the interpolation results are abnormally higher or lower. The calculation results of a step-shaped salinity advection model are analyzed, which show that higher order (N=3?8) LiELM can reduce the mean numerical error of salinity calculation, but the numerical oscillation error is still significant. Even number order LiELM makes larger numerical oscillation error than its adjacent odd number order LiELM. Hybrid N-order LiELM can remove numerical oscillation, and it significantly reduces the mean numerical error when N is even and the current is in fixed direction, while it makes less effect on mean numerical error when N is odd or the current direction changes periodically. Hybrid odd number order LiELM makes less mean numerical error than its adjacent even number order LiELM when the current is in the fixed direction, while the mean numerical error decreases as N increases when the current direction changes periodically, so odd number of N may be better for application. Among various types of Hybrid N-order LiELM, the scheme reducing N-order directly to 1st-order may be the optimal for synthetic selection of accuracy and computational efficiency.
Optimization of Blade Motion of Vertical Axis Turbine
MA Yong, ZHANG Liang, ZHANG Zhi-yang, HAN Duan-feng
2016, (2): 297-308.
In this paper, a method is proposed to improve the energy efficiency of the vertical axis turbine. First of all, a single disk multiple stream-tube model is used to calculate individual fitness. Genetic algorithm is adopted to optimize blade pitch motion of vertical axis turbine with the maximum energy efficiency being selected as the optimization objective. Then, a particular data processing method is proposed, fitting the result data into a cosine-like curve. After that, a general formula calculating the blade motion is developed. Finally, CFD simulation is used to validate the blade pitch motion formula. The results show that the turbine’s energy efficiency becomes higher after the optimization of blade pitch motion; compared with the fixed pitch turbine, the efficiency of variable-pitch turbine is significantly improved by the active blade pitch control; the energy efficiency declines gradually with the growth of speed ratio; besides, compactness has lager effect on the blade motion while the number of blades has little effect on it.
Deep Sea AUV Navigation Using Multiple Acoustic Beacons
JI Da-xiong, SONG Wei, ZHAO Hong-yu, LIU Jian
2016, (2): 309-318.
Navigation is a critical requirement for the operation of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). To estimate the vehicle position, we present an algorithm using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to integrate dead-reckoning position with acoustic ranges from multiple beacons pre-deployed in the operating environment. Owing to high latency, variable sound speed multipath transmissions and unreliability in acoustic measurements, outlier recognition techniques are proposed as well. The navigation algorithm has been tested by the recorded data of deep sea AUV during field operations in a variety of environments. Our results show the improved performance over prior techniques based on position computation.

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