ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2016 Vol.(3)

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Energy Transfer Mechanism and Probability Analysis of Submarine Pipe Laterally Impacted by Dropped Objects
LIANG Jing, YU Jian-xing, YU Yang, W. Lam, ZHAO Yi-yu, DUAN Jing-hui
2016, (3): 319-328.
Energy transfer ratio is the basic-factor affecting the level of pipe damage during the impact between dropped object and submarine pipe. For the purpose of studying energy transfer and damage mechanism of submarine pipe impacted by dropped objects, series of experiments are designed and carried out. The effective yield strength is deduced to make the quasi-static analysis more reliable, and the normal distribution of energy transfer ratio caused by lateral impact on pipes is presented by statistic analysis of experimental results based on the effective yield strength, which provides experimental and theoretical basis for the risk analysis of submarine pipe system impacted by dropped objects. Failure strains of pipe material are confirmed by comparing experimental results with finite element simulation. In addition, impact contact area and impact time are proved to be the major influence factors of energy transfer by sensitivity analysis of the finite element simulation.
An Analytical Solution for Dynamic Response of the Plate with Different Impedances Subjected to Underwater Explosion
CHEN Ying-yu, YAO Xiong-liang, XIAO Wei
2016, (3): 329-342.
In this paper, the transmitted part of the incident wave is considered to revise Taylor’s solution, which is used to extend its application for analytical models to predict the response of the plate with different material properties. The influence of the material properties and the boundary condition of the plate on fluid and structural dynamics is systematically investigated. The analytical results are compared with those of detailed dynamic FE simulations and the two are in good agreement. The results indicate that the analytical method is valid and suitable for the plates with different material properties subjected to underwater explosion. It is found that Taylor’s results of the plate with small impedance are invalid, which indicates a potential application field for the analytical method.
Hydrodynamic Interactions of Three Barges in Close Proximity in A Floatover Installation
XU Xin, LI Xin, YANG Jian-min, XIAO Long-fei
2016, (3): 343-358.
The hydrodynamics of side-by-side barges are much more complex than those of a single barge in waves because of wave shielding, viscous effects and water resonance in the gap. In the present study, hydrodynamic coefficients in the frequency domain were calculated for both the system of multiple bodies and the isolated body using both low-order and higher-order boundary-element methods with different element numbers. In these calculations, the damping-lid method was used to modify the free-surface boundary conditions in the gap and to make the hydrodynamic results more reasonable. Then far-field, mid-field and near-field methods were used to calculate wave-drift forces for both the multi-body system and the isolated body. The results show that the higher-order method has faster convergence speed than the low-order method for the multi-body case. Comparison of different methods of computing drift force showed that mid-field and far-field methods have better convergence than the near-field method. In addition, corresponding model tests were performed in the Deepwater Offshore Basin at Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Comparison between numerical and experimental results showed good agreement.
Modified Joint Distribution of Wave Heights and Periods
H. D. Zhang, C. Guedes Soares
2016, (3): 359-374.
The modified versions of the linear theoretical model of Longuet-Higgins (1983) are derived in this work and also compared with the laboratory experiments carried out in MARINTEK. The main feature of modifications is to replace the mean frequency in the formulation with the peak frequency of the wave spectrum. These two alternative forms of joint distributions are checked in three typical random sea states characterized by the initial wave steepness. In order to further explore the properties of these models, the associated marginal distributions of wave heights and wave periods are also researched with the observed statistics and some encouraging results are obtained.
Experimental Measurements of Solitary Wave Attenuation Over Shallow and Intermediate Submerged Canopy
WANG Qian, GUO Xiao-yu, WANG Ben-long, FANG Yong-liu, LIU Hua
2016, (3): 375-392.
Attenuations of solitary wave over a patch of submerged canopy are experimentally investigated. The submerged canopy is modeled by a group of circular cylinder array. The decay coefficients of different wave heights in two water depths along the wave flume are measured for six canopy models, including two canopy heights and three styles of arrangements. The relationships among the decay coefficient, and the dimensionless wave height, submergence ratio, relative height and arrangement of the canopy are experimentally studied. 2D PIV technique is employed to measure the representative flow field inside the canopy. A four-deck flow structure is proposed for wave flow field over shallow submerged canopy. The characteristics of shear flow inside the aligned canopy region are discussed.
Numerical and Experimental Studies on the Propulsion Performance of A Wave Glide Propulsor
LIU Peng, SU Yu-min, LIAO Yu-lei
2016, (3): 393-406.
This paper introduces a newly developed Unmanned Wave Glide Vehicle (UWGV), which is driven only by extracting energy from gravity waves, and presents a comprehensive study on the propulsion performance of the UWGV’s propulsor―Wave Glide Propulsor (WGP) in a regular wave. By simplifying the WGP as six 2D tandem asynchronous flapping foils (TAFFs), a CFD method based on Navier?Stokes equations was first used to analyze the hydrodynamic performance of TAFFs with different parameters of non-dimensional wave length m and non-dimensional wave height n. Then, a series of hydrodynamic experiments were performed. The computational results agree well with the experimental results when n≤0.07 and both of them show the thrust force and input power of the WGP are larger at smaller m or larger n. By analyzing the flow field of TAFFs, we can see that a larger m is beneficial to the forming, merging and shredding of the TAFFs’ vortices; as TAFFs are arranged in tandem and have the same motions, the leading edge vortex and wake vortex of the TAFFs are meaningful for improving the thrust force of their adjacent ones.
Design and Test of 1/5th Scale Horizontal Axis Tidal Current Turbine
LIU Hong-wei, ZHOU Hong-bin, LIN Yong-gang, LI Wei, GU Hai-gang
2016, (3): 407-420.
Tidal current energy is prominent and renewable. Great progress has been made in the exploitation technology of tidal current energy all over the world in recent years, and the large scale device has become the trend of tidal current turbine (TCT) for its economies. Instead of the similarity to the wind turbine, the tidal turbine has the characteristics of high hydrodynamic efficiency, big thrust, reliable sealing system, tight power transmission structure, etc. In this paper, a 1/5th scale horizontal axis tidal current turbine has been designed, manufactured and tested before the full scale device design. Firstly, the three-blade horizontal axis rotor was designed based on traditional blade element momentum theory and its hydrodynamic performance was predicted in numerical model. Then the power train system and stand-alone electrical control unit of tidal current turbine, whose performances were accessed through the bench test carried out in workshop, were designed and presented. Finally, offshore tests were carried out and the power performance of the rotor was obtained and compared with the published literatures, and the results showed that the power coefficient was satisfactory, which agrees with the theoretical predictions.
Experimental Study of Nonlinear Behaviors of A Free-Floating Body in Waves
HE Ming, REN Bing, QIU Da-hong
2016, (3): 421-430.
Nonlinear behaviors of a free-floating body in waves were experimentally investigated in the present study. The experiments were carried out for 6 different wave heights and 6 different wave periods to cover a relatively wide range of wave nonlinearities. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was used to capture the real-time motion of the floating body. The measurement data show that the sway, heave and roll motions of the floating body are all harmonic oscillations while the equilibrium position of the sway motion drifts in the wave direction. The drift speed is proportional to wave steepness when the size of the floating body is comparable to the wavelength, while it is proportional to the square of wave steepness when the floating body is relatively small. In addition, the drift motion leads to a slightly longer oscillation period of the floating body than the wave period of nonlinear wave and the discrepancy increases with the increment of wave steepness.
Oblique Wave Scattering by An Undulating Porous Bottom in A Two-Layer Ice-Covered Fluid
Srikumar PANDA
2016, (3): 431-446.
The present study analyzes the reflection and transmission phenomenon of water-waves in a two-layer ice-covered system. The upper layer is covered by an ice-sheet, whereas the bottom of the lower layer is undulated and permeable. By using regular perturbation analysis and Fourier transform technique, the problem is solved and the first order reflection and transmission coefficients are determined. It is found that these coefficients depend on the shape as well as the permeability of the undulating bottom. Therefore, from the practical viewpoint, an undulating bottom topography is considered to determine all the aforesaid coefficients. The role of various system parameters, such as porosity, angle of incidence and ice parameters, are discussed to analyze the transformation of incident water wave energy from one layer to another layer. The outcomes are demonstrated in graphical forms.
Modified Rayleigh Distribution of Wave Heights in Transitional Water Depths
WANG Ying-guang
2016, (3): 447-458.
This paper concerns the calculation of wave height exceedance probabilities for nonlinear irregular waves in transitional water depths, and a Transformed Rayleigh method is first proposed for carrying out the calculation. In the proposed Transformed Rayleigh method, the transformation model is chosen to be a monotonic exponential function, calibrated such that the first three moments of the transformed model match the moments of the true process. The proposed new method has been applied for calculating the wave height exceedance probabilities of a sea state with the surface elevation data measured at the Poseidon platform. It is demonstrated in this case that the proposed new method can offer better predictions than those by using the conventional Rayleigh wave height distribution model. The proposed new method has been further applied for calculating the total horizontal loads on a generic jacket, and its accuracy has once again been substantiated. The research findings gained from this study demonstrate that the proposed Transformed Rayleigh model can be utilized as a promising alternative to the well-established nonlinear wave height distribution models.
Experimental Study on Ocean Internal Wave Force on Vertical Cylinders in Different Depths
WANG Fei, GUO Hai-yan, LI Xiao-min, MENG Fan-shun
2016, (3): 459-468.
A series of experimental studies about the force of internal solitary wave and internal periodic wave on vertical cylinders have been carried out in a two-dimensional layered internal wave flume. The internal solitary waves are produced by means of gravitational collapse at the layer thickness ratio of 0.2, and the internal periodic waves are produced with rocker-flap wave maker at the layer thickness ratio of 0.93. The wave parameters are obtained through dyeing photography. The vertical cylinders of the same size are arranged in different depths. The horizontal force on each cylinder is measured and the vertical distribution rules are researched. The internal wave heights are changed to study the impact of wave heights on the force. The results show that the horizontal force of concave type internal solitary wave on vertical cylinder in the upper-layer fluid has the same direction as the wave propagating, while it has an opposite direction in the lower-layer. The horizontal force is not evenly distributed in the lower fluid. And the force at different depths increases along with wave height. Internal solitary wave can produce an impact load on the entire pile. The horizontal force of internal periodic waves on the vertical cylinders is periodically changed at the frequency of waves. The direction of the force is opposite in the upper and lower layers, and the value is close. In the upper layer except the depth close to the interface, the force is evenly distributed; but it tends to decrease with the deeper depth in the lower layer. A periodic shear load can be produced on the entire pile by internal periodic waves, and it may cause fatigue damage to structures.
Application of Importance Sampling Method in Sliding Failure Simulation of Caisson Breakwaters
WANG Yu-chi, WANG Yuan-zhan, LI Qing-mei, CHEN Liang-zhi
2016, (3): 469-482.
It is assumed that the storm wave takes place once a year during the design period, and N histories of storm waves are generated on the basis of wave spectrum corresponding to the N-year design period. The responses of the breakwater to the N histories of storm waves in the N-year design period are calculated by mass-spring-dashpot mode and taken as a set of samples. The failure probability of caisson breakwaters during the design period of N years is obtained by the statistical analysis of many sets of samples. It is the key issue to improve the efficiency of the common Monte Carlo simulation method in the failure probability estimation of caisson breakwaters in the complete life cycle. In this paper, the kernel method of importance sampling, which can greatly increase the efficiency of failure probability calculation of caisson breakwaters, is proposed to estimate the failure probability of caisson breakwaters in the complete life cycle. The effectiveness of the kernel method is investigated by an example. It is indicated that the calculation efficiency of the kernel method is over 10 times the common Monte Carlo simulation method.

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