ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2016 Vol.(4)

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Development and Extension of An Aggregated Scale Model: Part 1 – Background to ASMITA
Ian TOWNEND, Zheng Bing WANG, Marcel STIVE, Zeng ZHOU
2016, (4): 483-504.
Whilst much attention has been given to models that describe wave, tide and sediment transport processes in sufficient detail to determine the local changes in bed level over a relatively detailed representation of the bathymetry, far less attention has been given to models that consider the problem at a much larger scale (e.g. that of geomorphological elements such as a tidal flat and tidal channel). Such aggregated or lumped models tend not to represent the processes in detail but rather capture the behaviour at the scale of interest. One such model developed using the concept of an equilibrium concentration is the Aggregated Scale Morphological Interaction between Tidal basin and Adjacent coast (ASMITA). In this paper we provide some new insights into the concepts of equilibrium, and horizontal and vertical exchange that are key components of this modelling approach. In a companion paper, we summarise a range of developments that have been undertaken to extend the original model concept, to illustrate the flexibility and power of the conceptual framework. However, adding detail progressively moves the model in the direction of the more detailed process-based models and we give some consideration to the boundary between the two.
Coupled Dynamic Response Analysis of A Multi-Column Tension-Leg-Type Floating Wind Turbine
ZHAO Yong-sheng, YANG Jian-min, HE Yan-ping, GU Min-tong
2016, (4): 505-520.
This paper presents a coupled dynamic response analysis of a multi-column tension-leg-type floating wind turbine (WindStar TLP system) under normal operation and parked conditions. Wind-only load cases, wave-only load cases and combined wind and wave load cases were analyzed separately for the WindStar TLP system to identify the dominant excitation loads. Comparisons between an NREL offshore 5-MW baseline wind turbine installed on land and the WindStar TLP system were performed. Statistics of selected response variables in specified design load cases (DLCs) were obtained and analyzed. It is found that the proposed WindStar TLP system has small dynamic responses to environmental loads and it thus has almost the same mean generator power output under operating conditions as the land-based system. The tension mooring system has a sufficient safety factor, and the minimum tendon tension is always positive in all selected DLCs. The ratio of ultimate load of the tower base fore-aft bending moment for the WindStar TLP system versus the land-based system can be as high as 1.9 in all of the DLCs considered. These results will help elucidate the dynamic characteristics of the proposed WindStar TLP system, identify the difference in load effect between it and land-based systems, and thus make relevant modifications to the initial design for the WindStar TLP system.
Dynamic Analysis of Turret-Moored FPSO System in Freak Wave
TANG You-gang, LI Yan, WANG Bin, LIU Shu-xiao, ZHU Long-huan
2016, (4): 521-534.
Freak wave is the common wave which has significant wave height and irregular wave shape, and it is easy to damage offshore structure extremely. The FPSOs (Floating Production Storage and Offloading) suffer from the environment loads, including the freak wave. The freak waves were generated based on the improved phase modulation model, and the coupling model of FPSO-SPM (Single Point Mooring) was established by considering internal-turret FPSO and its mooring system. The dynamic response characteristics of both FPSO and SPM affected by the freak wave were analyzed in the time domain. According to the results, the freak waves generated by original phase modulation model mainly affect the 2nd-order wave loads. However, the freak waves which are generated by random frequencies phase modulation model affect both 1st-order and 2nd-order wave loads on FPSO. What is more, compared with the irregular waves, the dynamic responses of mooring system are larger in the freak waves, but its amplitude lags behind the peak of the freak wave.
Sensitivity Analysis of Air Gap Motion with Respect to Wind Load and Mooring System for Semi-Submersible Platform Design
HUO Fa-li, NIE Yan, YANG De-qing, DONG Gang, CUI Jin
2016, (4): 535-548.
A design of semi-submersible platform is mainly based on the extreme response analysis due to the forces experienced by the components during lifetime. The external loads can induce the extreme air gap response and potential deck impact to the semi-submersible platform. It is important to predict air gap response of platforms accurately in order to check the strength of local structures which withstand the wave slamming due to negative air gap. The wind load cannot be simulated easily by model test in towing tank whereas it can be simulated accurately in wind tunnel test. Furthermore, full scale simulation of the mooring system in model test is still a tuff work especially the stiffness of the mooring system. Owing to the above mentioned problem, the model test results are not accurate enough for air gap evaluation. The aim of this paper is to present sensitivity analysis results of air gap motion with respect to the mooring system and wind load for the design of semi-submersible platform. Though the model test results are not suitable for the direct evaluation of air gap, they can be used as a good basis for tuning the radiation damping and viscous drag in numerical simulation. In the presented design example, a numerical model is tuned and validated by ANSYS AQWA based on the model test results with a simple 4 line symmetrical horizontal soft mooring system. According to the tuned numerical model, sensitivity analysis studies of air gap motion with respect to the mooring system and wind load are performed in time domain. Three mooring systems and five simulation cases about the presented platform are simulated based on the results of wind tunnel tests and sea-keeping tests. The sensitivity analysis results are valuable for the floating platform design.
Characterizing the Seasonal and Directional Varying Properties in A Marine Environment
2016, (4): 549-564.
With noticing an increasing number of failure events for offshore structures in the present days, it is now realized that modeling the marine environment especially for exceptional environmental conditions is quite important. It is recognized that a possible improvement in the traditional modeling of environmental characteristics, which are the basis for the load models for structural analysis and design, may be needed. In this paper, the seasonal and directional varying properties in modeling the ocean parameter, the wave height, are studied. The peak over threshold (POT) method is selected to model the extreme wave height by utilizing a non-stationary discrete statistical extreme model. The varying parameters are taken into account with a changing pattern to reflect the seasonal and directional dependent behavior. Both the magnitude and the occurrence rate of the extreme values are investigated. Detailed discussion on the continuity of the established model is also given. The importance of the proposed model is demonstrated in reliability analysis for a jacket structure. The sensitivity to the changing marine environment in reliability analyses is investigated.
An Oscillating Wave Energy Converter with Nonlinear Snap-Through Power-Take-Off Systems in Regular Waves
ZHANG Xian-tao, YANG Jian-min, XIAO Long-fei
2016, (4): 565-580.
Floating oscillating bodies constitute a large class of wave energy converters, especially for offshore deployment. Usually the Power-Take-Off (PTO) system is a directly linear electric generator or a hydraulic motor that drives an electric generator. The PTO system is simplified as a linear spring and a linear damper. However the conversion is less powerful with wave periods off resonance. Thus, a nonlinear snap-through mechanism with two symmetrically oblique springs and a linear damper is applied in the PTO system. The nonlinear snap-through mechanism is characteristics of negative stiffness and double-well potential. An important nonlinear parameter is defined as the ratio of half of the horizontal distance between the two springs to the original length of both springs. Time domain method is applied to the dynamics of wave energy converter in regular waves. And the state space model is used to replace the convolution terms in the time domain equation. The results show that the energy harvested by the nonlinear PTO system is larger than that by linear system for low frequency input. While the power captured by nonlinear converters is slightly smaller than that by linear converters for high frequency input. The wave amplitude, damping coefficient of PTO systems and the nonlinear parameter affect power capture performance of nonlinear converters. The oscillation of nonlinear wave energy converters may be local or periodically inter well for certain values of the incident wave frequency and the nonlinear parameter , which is different from linear converters characteristics of sinusoidal response in regular waves.
Connection Technology of HPTO Type WECs and DC Nano Grid in Island
WANG Kun-lin, TIAN Lian-fang, YOU Ya-ge, WANG Xiao-hong, SHENG Song-wei, ZHANG Ya-qun, YE Yin
2016, (4): 581-590.
Wave energy fluctuating a great deal endangers the security of power grid especially micro grid in island. A DC nano grid supported by batteries is proposed to smooth the output power of wave energy converters (WECs). Thus, renewable energy converters connected to DC grid is a new subject. The characteristics of WECs are very important to the connection technology of HPTO type WECs and DC nano grid. Hydraulic power take-off system (HPTO) is the core unit of the largest category of WECs, with the functions of supplying suitable damping for a WEC to absorb wave energy, and converting captured wave energy to electricity. The HPTO is divided into a hydraulic energy storage system (HESS) and a hydraulic power generation system (HPGS). A primary numerical model for the HPGS is established in this paper. Three important basic characteristics of the HPGS are deduced, which reveal how the generator load determines the HPGS rotation rate. Therefore, the connector of HPTO type WEC and DC nano grid would be an uncontrollable rectifier with high reliability, also would be a controllable power converter with high efficiency, such as interleaved boost converter-IBC. The research shows that it is very flexible to connect to DC nano grid for WECs, but bypass resistance loads are indispensable for the security of WECs..
Model of Shipping Noise in the Deep Water: Directional Density and Spatial Coherence Functions
XIAO Peng, YANG Kun-de, LEI Bo
2016, (4): 591-601.
The shipping noise properties in the deep ocean are studied. Shipping noise exhibits the strong dual-horned directionality features in the flat-seabed ocean, and its directional density can be modeled by a Von Mises distribution. With the explicit expression for the directional density function, the spatial coherence functions of shipping noise are also derived, and the relative features are studied. The research result shows that the properties of shipping noise are different from the ambient noise of other sources, and it can be used for the sonar array design. The model is well matched with the experimental result, and it can be extended to the situations when the ambient noise exhibits the dual-horned structure.
Response Analysis of Tension-Based Tension Leg Platform Under Irregular Waves
D. S. Bhaskara Rao, R. Panneer Selvam
2016, (4): 603-614.
Tension Leg Platform (TLP) is a hybrid structure used as oil drilling and production facility within water depths of 1200 m. The extension of this TLP concept to deeper waters is a challenge and warrants for some innovative design concepts. In this paper, a relatively new concept of TLP which is christened as Tension-Based Tension Leg Platform (TBTLP) and patented by Srinivasan (1998) has been chosen for study. Response analysis of TLP with one tension base under irregular waves for three different sea states has been performed using hydrodynamic tool ANSYS? AQWA?. Results are reported in terms of RAOs, response spectrums for surge, heave and pitch degrees of freedom from which spectral statistics have been obtained. The statistics of TBTLP have been compared with TLPs (without tension base) for two different water depths to highlight the features of the new concept. The effect of viscous damping and loading effects on the RAOs are also investigated.
Comparison and Modification: TVD Schemes for Scalar Transport on An Unstructured Grid
ZHANG Zhuo, SONG Zhi-yao, GUO Fei, ZHANG Dong, WEN Yong-ning, HU Di
2016, (4): 615-626.
In most TVD schemes, the r-factors were proposed according to the cell-centered (CC) finite volume method (FVM) framework for the numerical approximation to the convective term. However, it is questionable whether those r-factors would be appropriate and effective for the vertex-centered (VC) FVM. In the paper, we collected five kinds of r-factor formulae and found out that only three of those, respectively by Bruner (1996), Darwish and Moukalled (2003) and Cassuli and Zanolli (2005) can be formally extended to a context of the VC FVM. Numerical tests indicate that the TVD schemes and r-factors, after being extended and introduced to a context of the VC FVM, maintained their similar characteristics as in a context of the CC FVM. However, when the gradient-based r-factors and the SUPERBEE scheme were applied simultaneously, non-physical oscillations near the sharp step would appear. In the transient case, the oscillations were weaker in a context of the VC FVM than those in a context of the CC FVM, while the effect was reversed in the steady case. To eliminate disadvantages in the gradient-based r-factor formula, a new modification method by limiting values on the virtual node, namely in the paper, was validated by the tests to effectively dissipate spurious oscillations.
Numerical and Experimental Studies on the Effect of Axial Spacing on Hydrodynamic Performance of the Hybrid CRP Pod Propulsion System
XIONG Ying, ZHANG Ke, WANG Zhan-zhi, QI Wan-jiang
2016, (4): 627-636.
The hydrodynamic performance of a hybrid CRP pod propulsion system was studied by RANS method with SST turbulence model and sliding mesh. The effect of axial spacing on the hydrodynamic performance of the hybrid CRP pod propulsion system was investigated numerically and experimentally. It shows that RANS with the sliding mesh method and SST turbulence model predicts accurately the hydrodynamic performance of the hybrid CRP pod propulsion system. The axial spacing has little influence on the hydrodynamic performance of the forward propeller, but great influence on that of the pod unit. Thrust coefficient of the pod unit declines with the increase of the axial spacing, but the trend becomes weaker, and the decreasing amplitude at the lower advance coefficient is larger than that at the higher advance coefficient. The thrust coefficient and open water efficiency of the hybrid CRP pod propulsion system decrease with the increase of the axial spacing, while the torque coefficient keeps almost constant. On this basis, the design principle of axial spacing of the hybrid CRP pod propulsion system was proposed.
Typical Equilibrium Beach Profile Models and Their Significances from Different Segments of A Headland-Bay Beach
YU Ji-tao, DING Yuan-ting, CHENG Huang-xin, LI Zhi-qiang, CHEN Zi-shen
2016, (4): 637-650.
This study introduces three typical models on equilibrium beach profile, and discusses the application limitations of these models. Then this study examines the selections for applying these models on different coastal segments of a headland-bay beach in west Guangdong, South China, and explores the physical significances of those parameters in the models. The results indicate that: (1) Bodge’s model is more in line with the equilibrium beach profile of the tangential or transitional segment, whereas Lee’s model is more consistent with the shadow profile; (2) most of the parameters in three models have clear physical significances in accordance with the actual characteristics of this headland-bay beach; and (3) both the selections for the equilibrium beach profile from different segments and significances of most of the parameters in three models are in essence correlated with the morphodynamic states at various coastal locations.

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