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Whilst much attention has been given to models that describe wave, tide and sediment transport processes in sufficient detail to determine the local changes in bed level over a relatively detailed representation of the bathymetry, far less attention has been given to models that consider the problem at a much larger scale (e.g. that of geomorphological elements such as a tidal flat and tidal channel). Such aggregated or lumped models tend not to represent the processes in detail but rather capture the behaviour at the scale of interest. One such model developed using the concept of an equilibrium concentration is the Aggregated Scale Morphological Interaction between Tidal basin and Adjacent coast (ASMITA). In a companion paper (Part 1), we detail the original model and provide some new insights into the concepts of equilibrium, and horizontal and vertical exchange that are key components of this modelling approach. In this paper, we summarise a range of developments that have been undertaken to extend the original model concept, to illustrate the flexibility and power of the conceptual framework. However, adding detail progressively moves the model in the direction of the more detailed process-based models and we give some consideration to the boundary between the two.
The harsh environmental conditions bring strong nonlinearities to the hydrodynamic performances of the offshore floating platforms, which challenge the reliable prediction of the platform coupled with the mooring system. The present study investigates a typical semi-submersible under both the operational and the survival conditions through numerical and experimental methods. The motion responses, the mooring line tensions, and the wave loads on the longitudinal mid-section are investigated by both the fully non-linearly coupled numerical simulation and the physical experiment. Particularly, in the physical model test, the wave loads distributed on the semi-submersible’s mid-section were measured by dividing the model into two parts, namely the port and the starboard parts, which were rigidly connected by three six-component force transducers. It is concluded that both the numerical and physical model can have good prediction of the semi-submersible’s global responses. In addition, an improved numerical approach is proposed for the estimation of the mooring-induced damping, and is validated by both the experimental and the published results. The characteristics of the mooring-induced damping are further summarized in various sea states, including the operational and the survival environments. In order to obtain the better prediction of the system response in deep water, the mooring-induced damping of the truncated mooring lines applied in the physical experiment are compensated by comparing with those in full length. Furthermore, the upstream taut and the downstream slack mooring lines are classified and investigated to obtain the different mooring line damping performances in the comparative study.
Investigation of hydroelastic ship responses has been brought to the attention of the scientific and engineering world for several decades. There are two kinds of high-frequency vibrations in general ship responses to a large ocean-going ship in its shipping line, so-called springing and whipping, which are important for the determination of design wave load and fatigue damage as well. Because of the huge scale of an ultra large ore carrier (ULOC), it will suffer seldom slamming events in the ocean. The resonance vibration with high frequency is springing, which is caused by continuous wave excitation. In this paper, the wave-induced vibrations of the ULOC are addressed by experimental and numerical methods according to 2D and 3D hydroelasticity theories and an elastic model under full-load and ballast conditions. The influence of loading conditions on high-frequency vibration is studied both by numerical and experimental results. Wave-induced vibrations are higher under ballast condition including the wave frequency part, the multiple frequencies part, the 2-node and the 3-node vertical bending parts of the hydroelastic responses. The predicted results from the 2D method have less accuracy than the 3D method especially under ballast condition because of the slender-body assumption in the former method. The applicability of the 2D method and the further development of nonlinear effects to 3D method in the prediction of hydroelastic responses of the ULOC are discussed.
Wave shapes that induce velocity skewness and acceleration asymmetry are usually responsible for onshore sediment transport, whereas undertow and bottom slope effect normally contribute to offshore sediment transport. By incorporating these counteracting driving forces in a phase-averaged manner, the theoretically-based quasi-steady formula of Wang (2007) is modified to predict the magnitude and direction of net cross-shore total load transport under the coaction of wave and current. The predictions show an excellent agreement with the measurement data on medium and fine sand collected by Dohmen-Janssen and Hanes (2002) and Schretlen (2012) in a full-scale wave flume at the Coastal Research Centre in Hannover, Germany. The modified formula can predict the net onshore transport of fine sand in sheet flows. In particular, it can predict the net offshore transport of medium sand in rippled beds through enlarged bed roughness, as well as the net offshore transport of fine-to-coarse sand in sheet flows with the aid of a new criterion to judge the occurrence of net offshore transport.
A depth-integrated model for simulating wave-induced longshore current was developed with unstructured grids. Effects of surface roller and horizontal mixing under combined waves and currents were incorporated in the numerical model. Recommended values of model coefficients were also proposed based on sensitivity analysis. Field observations and three series of laboratory measurements including two cases conducted on the plane beach and one implemented on the ideal inlet were employed to examine the predictive capability of this model. For the field case and laboratory cases conducted on the plane beach, numerical results were compared favorably with the measured data. For the case with an ideal inlet, simulated circulation pattern is supposed to be reasonable although some deviations between numerical results and measured data still can be detected.
Bayesian networks (BN) have many advantages over other methods in ecological modeling, and have become an increasingly popular modeling tool. However, BN are flawed in regard to building models based on inadequate existing knowledge. To overcome this limitation, we propose a new method that links BN with structural equation modeling (SEM). In this method, SEM is used to improve the model structure for BN. This method was used to simulate coastal phytoplankton dynamics in the Bohai Bay. We demonstrate that this hybrid approach minimizes the need for expert elicitation, generates more reasonable structures for BN models, and increases the BN model’s accuracy and reliability. These results suggest that the inclusion of SEM for testing and verifying the theoretical structure during the initial construction stage improves the effectiveness of BN models, especially for complex eco-environment systems. The results also demonstrate that in the Bohai Bay, while phytoplankton biomass has the greatest influence on phytoplankton dynamics, the impact of nutrients on phytoplankton dynamics is larger than the influence of the physical environment in summer. Furthermore, although the Redfield ratio indicates that phosphorus should be the primary nutrient limiting factor, our results show that silicate plays the most important role in regulating phytoplankton dynamics in the Bohai Bay.
To study the characteristics of attenuation, hydrostatic towage and wave response of the vertical-axis floating tidal current energy power generation device (VAFTCEPGD), a prototype is designed and experiment is carried out in the towing tank. Free decay is conducted to obtain attenuation characteristics of the VAFTCEPGD, and characteristics of mooring forces and motion response, floating condition, especially the lateral displacement of the VAFTCEPGD are obtained from the towing in still water. Tension response of the #1 mooring line and vibration characteristics of the VAFTCEPGD in regular waves as well as in level 4 irregular wave sea state with the current velocity of 0.6 m/s. The results can be reference for theoretical study and engineering applications related to VAFTCEPGD.
Presence of the outer perforated cylinder reduces the direct wave impact on the inner cylinder, which has been testified by many researchers. However, the force reduction mechanism, which is complicated due to the wave-porous structure interaction, needs to be addressed in detail. The present study explains the mechanism with the aid of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool STAR CCM+. This package is chosen for its capabilities to simulate viscous and turbulence effects caused by passage of waves. For the present study, flow fields around the twin cylinders with different orientations are examined with and without the outer perforated cover. Mechanism contributing to the reduction of force on the existing structure is explained in physical terms, and force reduction is quantified. The present study has direct application in the retrofitting application of offshore members.
Aimed at the hydrodynamic response for marine structures slamming into water, based on the mechanism analysis to the slamming process, and by combining 3D N?S equation and turbulent kinetic equation with structure fully 6DOF motion equation, a mathematical model for the wind-fluid-solid interaction is established in 3D marine structure slamming wave at free poses and wind-wave-flow complex environments. Compared with the results of physical model test, the numerical results from the slamming wave well correspond with the experimental results. Through the mathematical model, the wave-making issue of 3D marine structure at initial pose falls into water in different complex wind, wave and flow environments is investigated. The research results show that various kinds of natural factors and structure initial poses have different influence on the slamming wave, and there is an obvious rule in this process.
The interaction between waves and porous breakwater has an important theoretical significance and great application value of engineering. In this paper, the tests of the core material’s influence in rubble mound breakwater on wave propagation are carried out. The relations among the transmitted wave height, incident wave element, and breakwater width are discussed. The calculation formula is obtained. The test results show that different core materials have obvious influence on wave propagation.
This paper presents a universal fifth-order Stokes solution for steady water waves on the basis of potential theory. It uses a global perturbation parameter, considers a depth uniform current, and thus admits the flexibilities on the definition of the perturbation parameter and on the determination of the wave celerity. The universal solution can be extended to that of Chappelear (1961), confirming the correctness for the universal theory. Furthermore, a particular fifth-order solution is obtained where the wave steepness is used as the perturbation parameter. The applicable range of this solution in shallow depth is analyzed. Comparisons with the Fourier approximated results and with the experimental measurements show that the solution is fairly suited to waves with the Ursell number not exceeding 46.7.
With all the improvement in wave and hydrodynamics numerical models, the question rises in our mind that how the accuracy of the forcing functions and their input can affect the results. In this paper, a commonly used numerical third-generation wave model, SWAN is applied to predict waves in Lake Michigan. Wind data are analyzed to determine wind variation frequency over Lake Michigan. Wave predictions uncertainty due to wind local effects are compared during a period where wind has a fairly constant speed and direction over the northern and southern basins. The study shows that despite model calibration in Lake Michigan area, the model deficiency arises from ignoring wind effects in small scales. Wave prediction also emphasizes that small scale turbulence in meteorological forces can increase prediction errors by 38%. Wave frequency and coherence analysis show that both models can predict the wave variation time scale with the same accuracy. Insufficient number of meteorological stations can result in neglecting local wind effects and discrepancies in current predictions. The uncertainty of wave numerical models due to input uncertainties and model principals should be taken into account for design risk factors.
Different operating conditions (e.g. design and off-design) may lead to a significant difference in the hydrodynamics performance of a ship, especially in the total resistance and wake field of ships. This work investigated the hydrodynamic performance of the well-known KRISO 3600 TEU Container Ship (KCS) under three different operating conditions by means of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The comparison results show that the use of PIV to measure a ship’s nominal wake field is an important method which has the advantages of being contactless and highly accurate. Acceptable agreements between the results obtained by the two different methods are achieved. Results indicate that the total resistances of the KCS model under two off-design conditions are 23.88% and 13.92% larger than that under the designed condition, respectively.
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- Volume 33
- Issue 6
- December 2019
- Superintended by:
CHINA ASSOCIATION FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
- Sponsored by:
Chinese Ocean Engineering Society （COES）
- Edited by:
Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute
Adaptive Predictive Inverse Control of Offshore Jacket Platform Based on Rough Neural Network
Numerical Simulation of Water Exchange Characteristics of the Jiaozhou Bay Based on A Three-Dimensional Lagrangian Model
A Global Reliability Assessment Method on Aging Offshore Platforms with Corrosion and Cracks