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The stability of platform structure is the paramount guarantee of the safe operation of the offshore floating wind turbine. The NREL 5MW floating wind turbine is established based on the OC3-Hywind Spar Buoy platform with the supplement of helical strakes for the purpose to analyze the impact of helical strakes on the dynamic response of the floating wind turbine Spar platform. The dynamic response of floating wind turbine Spar platform under wind, wave and current loading from the impact of number, height and pitch ratio of the helical strakes is analysed by the radiation and diffraction theory, the finite element method and orthogonal design method. The result reveals that the helical strakes can effectively inhibit the dynamic response of the platform but enlarge the wave exciting force; the best parameter combination is two pieces of helical strakes with the height of 15%D (D is the diameter of the platform) and the pitch ratio of 5; the height of the helical strake and its pitch ratio have significant influence on pitch response.
In this paper, the impact analysis of air gap concerning the parameters of mooring system for the semi-submersible platform is conducted. It is challenging to simulate the wave, current and wind loads of a platform based on a model test simultaneously. Furthermore, the dynamic equivalence between the truncated and full-depth mooring system is still a tuff work. However, the wind and current loads can be tested accurately in wind tunnel model. Furthermore, the wave can be simulated accurately in wave tank test. The full-scale mooring system and the all environment loads can be simulated accurately by using the numerical model based on the model tests simultaneously. In this paper, the air gap response of a floating platform is calculated based on the results of tunnel test and wave tank. Meanwhile, full-scale mooring system, the wind, wave and current load can be considered simultaneously. In addition, a numerical model of the platform is tuned and validated by ANSYS AQWA according to the model test results. With the support of the tuned numerical model, seventeen simulation cases about the presented platform are considered to study the wave, wind, and current loads simultaneously. Then, the impact analysis studies of air gap motion regarding the length, elasticity, and type of the mooring line are performed in the time domain under the beam wave, head wave, and oblique wave conditions.
A series of physical tests are conducted to examine the characteristics of the wave loading exerted on circular-front breakwaters by regular waves. It is found that the wave trough instead of wave crest plays a major role in the failure of submerged circular caissons due to seaward sliding. The difference in the behavior of seaward and shoreward horizontal wave forces is explained based on the variations of dynamic pressure with wave parameters. A wave load model is proposed based on a modified first-order solution for the dynamic pressure on submerged circular-front caissons under a wave trough. This wave loading model is very useful for engineering design. Further studies are needed to include model uncertainties in the reliability assessment of the breakwater.
Ning et al. (2015) developed a 2D fully nonlinear potential model to investigate the interaction between focused waves and uniform currents. The effects of uniform current on focusing wave crest, focal time and focal position were given. As its extension, harmonic energy transfer for focused waves in uniform current is studied using the proposed model by Ning et al. (2015) and Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) technique in this study. It shows that the strong opposing currents, inducing partial wave blocking and reducing the extreme wave crest, make the nonlinear energy transfer non-reversible in the focusing and defocusing processes. The numerical results also provide an explanation to address the shifts of focal points in consideration of the combination effects of wave nonlinearity and current.
An edge wave is a kind of surface gravity wave basically travelling along a shoaling beach. Based on the periodic assumption in the longshore direction, a second order ordinary differential equation is obtained for numerical simulation of the cross-shore surface elevation. Given parameters at the shoreline, a cross-shore elevation profile is obtained through integration with fourth-order Runge-Kutta technique. For a compound slope, a longshore wavenumber is obtained by following a geometrical approach and solving a transcendental equation with an asymptotic method. Numerical results on uniform and compound sloping beaches with different wave periods, slope angles, modes and turning point positions are presented. Some special scenarios, which cannot be predicted by analytical models are also discussed.
When ordinary Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method is used to simulate wave propagation in a wave tank, it is usually observed that the wave height decays and the wave length elongates along the direction of wave propagation. Accompanied with this phenomenon, the pressure under water decays either and shows a big oscillation simultaneously. The reason is the natural potential tensile instability of modeling water motion with ordinary SPH which is caused by particle negative stress in the computation. To deal with the problems, a new sextic kernel function is proposed to reduce this instability. An appropriate smooth length is given and its computation criterion is also suggested. At the same time, a new kind dynamic boundary condition is introduced. Based on these improvements, the new SPH method named stability improved SPH (SISPH) can simulate the wave propagation well. Both the water surface and pressure can be well expressed and the oscillation of pressure is nearly eliminated. Compared with other improved methods, SISPH can truly reveal the physical reality without bringing some new problems in a simple way.
All-vertical-piled wharf is a kind of high-piled wharf, but it is extremely different from the traditional ones in some aspects, such as the structural property, bearing characteristics, failure mechanism, and static or dynamic calculation methods. In this paper, the finite element method (FEM) and theoretical analysis method are combined to analyze the structural property, bearing behavior and failure mode of the all-vertical-piled wharf in offshore deep water, and to establish simplified calculation methods determining the horizontal static ultimate bearing capacity and the dynamic response for the all-vertical-piled wharf. Firstly, the bearing capability and failure mechanism for all-vertical-piled wharf are studied by use of FEM, and the failure criterion is put forward for all-vertical-piled wharf based on the ‘plastic hinge’. According to the failure criterion and P-Y curve method, the simplified calculation method of the horizontal static ultimate bearing capacity for all-vertical-piled wharf is proposed, and it is verified that the simplified method is reasonable by comparison with the FEM. Secondly, the displacement dynamic magnification factor for the all-vertical-piled wharf under wave cyclic loads and ship impact loads is calculated by the FEM and the theory formula based on the single degree of freedom (SDOF) system. The results obtained by the two methods are in good agreement with each other, and the simplified calculation method of the displacement dynamic magnification factor for all-vertical-piled wharf under dynamic loads is proposed. Then the simplified calculation method determining the dynamic response for the all-vertical-piled wharf is proposed in combination with P-Y curve method. That is, the dynamic response of the structure can be obtained through the static calculation results of P-Y curve method multiplied by the displacement dynamic magnification factor. The feasibility of the simplified dynamic response method is verified by comparison with the FEM under different conditions.
The crashworthiness of the cargo containment systems (CCSs) of a floating liquid natural gas (FLNG) and the side structures in side-by-side offloading operations scenario are studied in this paper. An FLNG vessel is exposed to potential threats from collisions with a liquid natural gas carrier (LNGC) during the offloading operations, which has been confirmed by a model test of FLNG-LNGC side-by-side offloading operations. A nonlinear finite element code LS-DYNA is used to simulate the collision scenarios during the offloading operations. Finite element models of an FLNG vessel and an LNGC are established for the purpose of this study, including a detailed LNG cargo containment system in the FLNG side model. Based on the parameters obtained from the model test and potential dangerous accidents, typical collision scenarios are defined to conduct a comprehensive study. To evaluate the safety of the FLNG vessel, a limit state is proposed based on the structural responses of the LNG CCS. The different characteristics of the structural responses for the primary structural components, energy dissipation and collision forces are obtained for various scenarios. Deformation of the inner hull is found to have a great effect on the responses of the LNG CCS, with approximately 160 mm deformation corresponding to the limit state. Densely arranged web frames can absorb over 35% of the collision energy and be proved to greatly enhance the crashwo-rthiness of the FLNG side structures.
This paper presents a theoretic implementation method of Morphing Unmanned Submersible Aerial Vehicle (MUSAV), which can both submerge in the water and fly in the air. Two different shapes are put forward so that the vehicle can suit both submergence and flight, considering the tremendous differences between hydrodynamic configuration and aerodynamic configuration of a vehicle. The transition of the two shapes can be achieved by using morphing technology. The water-to-air process, including water-exit, morphing, take-off and steady flight, is analyzed. The hydrodynamic and aerodynamic model of the vehicle exiting the water surface obliquely and then taking off into the air has been founded. The control strategy after morphing is analyzed and the control method is given. Numerical method is used to validate the motion model of the water-exit process. Results of simulations show the validity of the proposed model and the feasibility of MUSAV in theory.
The dynamic analysis of a Tension Leg Platform (TLP) in random wave is investigated by considering the set-down of a floating body. The nonlinear restoring stiffness is derived with the set-down motion of a floating body and the coupled motion of the tension leg and platform and the differential equations of the motion are established. The study focuses on the influence of the set-down motion on the nonlinear response of the platform. By considering different significant wave heights and currents, motion responses of the platform are calculated and compared. The analysis shows that the set-down motion significantly increases the heave motion with low frequency and the equilibrium position of the heave motion with the set-down motion is much lower than that without set-down motion. The results in this paper indicate that the set-down motion has a major impact on the safety of the platform inproduction operation, and it is also a threat to the strength of tension legs and risers.
With the method of separation of variables and the eigenfunction expansion employed, an analytical solution is presented for the radiation and diffraction of a rectangular structure with an opening near a vertical wall in oblique seas, in which the unknown coefficients are determined by the boundary conditions and matching requirement on the interface. The effects of the width of the opening and the angle of incidence on the hydrodynamic characteristics of a rectangular structure with an opening near a vertical wall are mainly studied. The comparisons of the calculation results with wall-present and with wall-absent are also made. The results indicate that the variation trends of the heave added mass and excitation force with wall-present are almost the same as those with wall-absent, and that the peak values in the former case are obviously larger than those in the latter due to the reflection of the vertical wall.
By focusing on the vulnerability of the structure of marine equipments, together with considering the randomness of meta-ocean load in statistics, a kind of analytical method of fatigue characteristics of marine structure based on full-scale and actual measurement of prototype is proposed. On the basis of short-term field measurement results of structural response, research is carried out on the fatigue analysis of hinge joints at the upper part of the Soft Yoke single point Mooring System (SYMS) by simultaneously monitoring the environmental load and considering the design criteria of offshore structure. Through analysis of finite element modeling, the time-histories of typical stress response are obtained, and then the assessment of fatigue damage at key hinge joints is conducted. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method can accurately analyze the fatigue damage of offshore engineering structure caused by the effect of wave load. The present analytical method of fatigue characteristics can be extended on other offshore engineering structures subjected to meta-ocean load.
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method (SPH) has a good adaptability for simulating of free surface flow problems. However, there are some shortcomings of SPH which are still in open discussion. This paper presents a corrected solid boundary handling method for weakly compressible SPH. This improved method is very helpful for numerical stability and pressure distribution. Compared with other solid boundary handling methods, this corrected method is simpler for virtual ghost particle interpolation and the ghost particle evaluation relationship is clearer. Several numerical tests are given, like dam breaking, solitary wave impact and sloshing tank waves. The results show that the corrected solid boundary processing method can recover the spurious oscillations of pressure distribution when simulating the problems with complex geometry boundary.
Application of multiple hybrid underwater gliders (HUGs) is a promising method for large scale, long-term ocean survey. Attitude coordination has become a requisite for task execution of multi-HUG formation. In this paper, a multibody model is presented for attitude coordination among agents in the HUG formation. The HUG formation is regarded as a multi-rigid body system. The interaction between agents in the formation is described by artificial potential field (APF) approach. Attitude control torque is composed of a conservative torque generated by orientation potential field and a dissipative term related with angular velocity. Dynamic modeling of the multibody system is presented to analyze the dynamic process of the HUG formation. Numerical calculation is carried out to simulate attitude synchronization with two kinds of formation topologies. Results show that attitude synchronization can be fulfilled based on the multibody method described in this paper. It is also indicated that different topologies affect attitude control quality with respect to energy consumption and adjusting time. Low level topology should be adopted during formation control scheme design to achieve a better control effect.
The life duration of underwater cooperative network has been the hot topic in recent years. And the problem of node energy consuming is the key technology to maintain the energy balance among all nodes. To ensure energy efficiency of some special nodes and obtain a longer lifetime of the underwater cooperative network, this paper focuses on adopting precoding strategy to preprocess the signal at the transmitter and simplify the receiver structure. Meanwhile, it takes into account the presence of Doppler shifts and long feedback transmission delay in an underwater acoustic communication system. Precoding technique is applied based on channel prediction to realize energy saving and improve system performance. Different precoding methods are compared. Simulated results and experimental results show that the proposed scheme has a better performance, and it can provide a simple receiver and realize energy saving for some special nodes in a cooperative communication.
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- Volume 33
- Issue 6
- December 2019
- Superintended by:
CHINA ASSOCIATION FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
- Sponsored by:
Chinese Ocean Engineering Society （COES）
- Edited by:
Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute
Adaptive Predictive Inverse Control of Offshore Jacket Platform Based on Rough Neural Network
Numerical Simulation of Water Exchange Characteristics of the Jiaozhou Bay Based on A Three-Dimensional Lagrangian Model
A Global Reliability Assessment Method on Aging Offshore Platforms with Corrosion and Cracks