ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

2017 Vol.31(3)

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2017, (3): 0-0.
A Hybrid Finite-Volume and Finite Difference Scheme for Depth-Integrated Non-Hydrostatic Model
Jing YIN, Jia-wen SUN, Xing-gang WANG, Yong-hai YU, Zhao-chen SUN
2017, 31(3): 261-271. doi: 10.1007/s13344-017-0031-4
A depth-integrated, non-hydrostatic model with hybrid finite difference and finite volume numerical algorithm is proposed in this paper. By utilizing a fraction step method, the governing equations are decomposed into hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic parts. The first part is solved by using the finite volume conservative discretization method, whilst the latter is considered by solving discretized Poisson-type equations with the finite difference method. The second-order accuracy, both in time and space, of the finite volume scheme is achieved by using an explicit predictor-correction step and linear construction of variable state in cells. The fluxes across the cell faces are computed in a Godunov-based manner by using MUSTA scheme. Slope and flux limiting technique is used to equip the algorithm with total variation dimensioning property for shock capturing purpose. Wave breaking is treated as a shock by switching off the non-hydrostatic pressure in the steep wave front locally. The model deals with moving wet/dry front in a simple way. Numerical experiments are conducted to verify the proposed model.
Research on the Effects of in-Line Oscillatory Flow on the Vortex-Induced Motions of A Deep Draft Semi-Submersible in Currents
Fan WU, Long-fei XIAO, Ming-yue LIU, Xin-liang TIAN
2017, 31(3): 272-283. doi: 10.1007/s13344-017-0032-3
A Deep Draft Semi-submersible (DDS) under certain flow conditions could be subjected to Vortex-Induced Motions (VIM), which significantly influences the loads on and life fatigue of the moorings and the risers. To investigate the VIM of a DDS with four rectangular section columns in waves coupled with a uniform current, a numerical study using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method was conducted. The issues of the VIM of multi-column floaters can be conveniently converted to the issues of oscillating cylinders in fluid cross flows. This paper looks into the CFD numerical simulation of infinite cylinders having rectangular sections in a two-dimensional sinusoidal time-dependent flow field coupled with a uniform current. The resulted hydrodynamic forces and motion responses in different oscillatory flows plus currents both aligned in the same direction for the incidence of 135° of the DDS relative to the flow are compared with the ones in current only cases. The results show that the VIM response of this geometric arrangement of a DDS with four rectangular columns in a current combined with oscillatory flows is more evident than that in the current only case. The oscillatory flows and waves have the significant influence on the VIM response, forces and trajectory, in-plane motions of the DDS.
Lateral Vibration Behavior Analysis and TLD Vibration Absorption Design of the Soft Yoke Single-Point Mooring System
Bai-cheng LYU, Wen-hua WU, Wei-an YAO, Yu DU
2017, 31(3): 284-290. doi: 10.1007/s13344-017-0033-2
Mooring system is the key equipment of FPSO safe operation. The soft yoke mooring system is regarded as one of the best shallow water mooring strategies and widely applied to the oil exploitation in the Bohai Bay in China and the Gulf of Mexico. Based on the analysis of numerous monitoring data obtained by the prototype monitoring system of one FPSO in the Bohai Bay, the on-site lateral vibration behaviors found on the site of the soft yoke subject to wave load were analyzed. ADAMS simulation and model experiment were utilized to analyze the soft yoke lateral vibration and it was determined that lateral vibration was resonance behaviors caused by wave excitation. On the basis of the soft yoke longitudinal restoring force being guaranteed, a TLD-based vibration damper system was constructed and the vibration reduction experiments with multi-tank space and multi-load conditions were developed. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed TLD vibration reduction system can effectively reduce lateral vibration of soft yoke structures.
Prediction of Height and Period Joint Distributions for Stochastic Ocean Waves
Ying-guang WANG
2017, 31(3): 291-298. doi: 10.1007/s13344-017-0034-1
This article proposes a new methodology to predict the wave height and period joint distributions by utilizing a transformed linear simulation method. The proposed transformed linear simulation method is based on a Hermite transformation model where the transformation is chosen to be a monotonic cubic polynomial, calibrated such that the first four moments of the transformed model match the moments of the true process. The proposed new approach is applied for calculating the wave height and period joint distributions of a sea state with the surface elevation data measured at an offshore site, and its accuracy and efficiency are favorably validated by using comparisons with the results from an empirical joint distribution model, from a linear simulation model and from a second-order nonlinear simulation model.
Sampling Surface Particle Size Distributions and Stability Analysis of Deep Channel in the Pearl River Estuary
Hao-chuan FENG, Wei ZHANG, Yu-liang ZHU, Zhi-yi LEI, Xiao-mei JI
2017, 31(3): 299-307. doi: 10.1007/s13344-017-0035-0
Particle size distributions (PSDs) of bottom sediments in a coastal zone are generally multimodal due to the complexity of the dynamic environment. In this paper, bottom sediments along the deep channel of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) are used to understand the multimodal PSDs′ characteristics and the corresponding depositional environment. The results of curve-fitting analysis indicate that the near-bottom sediments in the deep channel generally have a bimodal distribution with a fine component and a relatively coarse component. The particle size distribution of bimodal sediment samples can be expressed as the sum of two lognormal functions and the parameters for each component can be determined. At each station of the PRE, the fine component makes up less volume of the sediments and is relatively poorly sorted. The relatively coarse component, which is the major component of the sediments, is even more poorly sorted. The interrelations between the dynamics and particle size of the bottom sediment in the deep channel of the PRE have also been investigated by the field measurement and simulated data. The critical shear velocity and the shear velocity are calculated to study the stability of the deep channel. The results indicate that the critical shear velocity has a similar distribution over large part of the deep channel due to the similar particle size distribution of sediments. Based on a comparison between the critical shear velocities derived from sedimentary parameters and the shear velocities obtained by tidal currents, it is likely that the depositional area is mainly distributed in the northern part of the channel, while the southern part of the deep channel has to face higher erosion risk.
Experimental Study on the Bed Shear Stress Under Breaking Waves
Si-yu HAO, Yun-feng XIA, Hua XU
2017, 31(3): 308-316. doi: 10.1007/s13344-017-0036-z
The object of present study is to investigate the bed shear stress on a slope under regular breaking waves by a novel instrument named Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) flexible hot-film shear stress sensor. The sensors were calibrated before application, and then a wave flume experiment was conducted to study the bed shear stress for the case of regular waves spilling and plunging on a 1:15 smooth PVC slope. The experiment shows that the sensor is feasible for the measurement of the bed shear stress under breaking waves. For regular incident waves, the bed shear stress is mainly periodic in both outside and inside the breaking point. The fluctuations of the bed shear stress increase significantly after waves breaking due to the turbulence and vortexes generated by breaking waves. For plunging breaker, the extreme value of the mean maximum bed shear stress appears after the plunging point, and the more violent the wave breaks, the more dramatic increase of the maximum bed shear stress will occur. For spilling breaker, the increase of the maximum bed shear stress along the slope is gradual compared with the plunging breaker. At last, an empirical equation about the relationship between the maximum bed shear stress and the surf similarity parameter is given, which can be used to estimate the maximum bed shear stress under breaking waves in practice.
Expected Sliding Distance of Vertical Slit Caisson Breakwater
Hyawn KIM Dong
2017, 31(3): 317-321. doi: 10.1007/s13344-017-0037-y
Evaluating the expected sliding distance of a vertical slit caisson breakwater is proposed. Time history for the wave load to a vertical slit caisson is made. It consists of two impulsive wave pressures followed by a smooth sinusoidal pressure. In the numerical analysis, the sliding distance for an attack of single wave was shown and the expected sliding distance during 50 years was also presented. Those results were compared with a vertical front caisson breakwater without slit. It was concluded that the sliding distance of a vertical slit caisson may be over-estimated if the wave pressure on the caisson is evaluated without considering vertical slit.
Extension of the Frequency-Domain pFFT Method for Wave Structure Interaction in Finite Depth
Bin TENG, Zhi-jie SONG
2017, 31(3): 322-329. doi: 10.1007/s13344-017-0038-x
To analyze wave interaction with a large scale body in the frequency domain, a precorrected Fast Fourier Transform (pFFT) method has been proposed for infinite depth problems with the deep water Green function, as it can form a matrix with Toeplitz and Hankel properties. In this paper, a method is proposed to decompose the finite depth Green function into two terms, which can form matrices with the Toeplitz and a Hankel properties respectively. Then, a pFFT method for finite depth problems is developed. Based on the pFFT method, a numerical code pFFT-HOBEM is developed with the discretization of high order elements. The model is validated, and examinations on the computing efficiency and memory requirement of the new method have also been carried out. It shows that the new method has the same advantages as that for infinite depth.
Effect of Peak Perforation on Flow Past A Conic Cylinder at Re=100: Drag, Lift and Strouhal Number
Li-ming LIN, Xing-fu ZHONG, Ying-xiang WU
2017, 31(3): 330-340. doi: 10.1007/s13344-017-0039-9
A flow past a circular-section cylinder with a perforated conic shroud, in which the perforation is located at the peak of the conic disturbance as the shroud installed on the cylinder and uniformly distributed with several circular holes, is numerically simulated at a Reynolds number of 100. Two factors in the perforation are taken into account, i.e. the attack angle relative to the direction of incoming flow and diameter of holes. The effect of such perforation on the drag, lift and vortex-shedding frequency is mainly investigated. Results have shown that variation of the attack angle has a little effect, especially on the drag and vortex-shedding frequency, except in certain cases due to the varied vortex-shedding patterns in the near wake. The increasing hole diameter still exhibits a little effect on the drag and frequency of vortex shedding, but really reduces the lift, in particular at larger wavelength, such as the lift reduction reaching almost 66%–68% after introducing the perforation.
Wave Interactions with Multiple Semi-Immersed Jarlan-Type Perforated Breakwaters
ELBISY Moussa S.
2017, 31(3): 341-349. doi: 10.1007/s13344-017-0040-3
This study examines wave interactions with multiple semi-immersed Jarlan-type perforated breakwaters. A numerical model based on linear wave theory and an eigenfunction expansion method has been developed to study the hydrodynamic characteristics of breakwaters. The numerical results show a good agreement with previous analytical results and experimental data for limiting cases of double partially immersed impermeable walls and double and triple Jarlan-type breakwaters. The wave transmission coefficient CT; reflection coefficient CR, and energy dissipation coefficient CE coefficients and the horizontal wave force exerted on the front and rear walls are examined. The results show that CR reaches the maximum value when B/L = 0.46n while it is smallest when B/L=0.46n+0.24 (n=0, 1, 2,...). An economical triple semi-immersed Jarlan-type perforated breakwater can be designed with B/L = 0.25 and CR and CT ranging from 0.25 to 0.32 by choosing a relative draft d/h of 0.35 and a permeability parameter of the perforated front walls being 0.5 for an incident wave number kh nearly equal to 2.0. The triple semi-immersed Jarlan-type perforated breakwaters with significantly reduced CR, will enhance the structure’s wave absorption ability, and lead to smaller wave forces compared with the double one. The proposed model may be used to predict the response of a structure in the preliminary design stage for practical engineering.
Experimental Study on Mean Overtopping of Sloping Seawall Under Oblique Irregular Waves
Deng-ting WANG, Lie-hong JU, Jia-ling ZHU, Zhen WANG, Tian-ting SUN, Wei-qiu CHEN
2017, 31(3): 350-356. doi: 10.1007/s13344-017-0041-2
In this paper, domestic and abroad research progresses and related calculation formulae of the mean overtopping discharge are summarized. Through integral physical model experiments, the relation between the wave direction and the overtopping discharge on the top of the sloping dike is focused on and put into analysis and discussion; and a modified formula for mean overtopping discharges under oblique irregular waves is proposed. The study shows that the mean overtopping discharge generally goes down as the relative wave obliquity β increases for a fixed measurement point and the mean overtopping discharge generally increases as the wave steepness H/L decreases (the cycle increases) for a fixed relative wave obliquity.
Influence of Turbulence Intensity and Turbulence Length Scale on the Drag, Lift and Heat Transfer of A Circular Cylinder
Morenko I.V., Fedyaev V.L.
2017, 31(3): 357-363. doi: 10.1007/s13344-017-0042-1
Influence of the turbulence intensity and turbulence length scale on the hydrodynamic characteristics and heat transfer of a circular cylinder, streamlined by a viscous fluid flow, is numerically studied. We take the Reynolds number of the oncoming flow equal to 4×104, the turbulence intensity Tuf and the dimensionless turbulence length scale ${\overline L_{{\rm f}}$ varying from 1.0% to 40% and from 0.25 to 4.0, respectively. We confirmed that the increase of Tuf leads to the suppression of the periodic vortex shedding from the cylinder surface, and as a result the stationary mode of streamlining is formed. Consequently, with the increasing turbulence intensity directly in front of the cylinder Tu*, the amplitude of the lift coefficient decreases monotonically. Nevertheless, the time-averaged drag coefficient of the streamlined cylinder decreases at Tu*<6.0%, and increases atTu*>9.0%. The dependence of the average Nusselt number onTu* is near-linear, and with the increasing turbulence intensity, the Nusselt number rises. However, the change of the average Nusselt number depending on ${\overline L_{\rm f}$ is non-monotonic and at ${\overline L_{\rm f}$ =1.0, the value reaches its maximum.
Study of Hydrodynamic Characteristics of A Sharp Eagle Wave Energy Converter
Ya-qun ZHANG, Song-wei SHENG, Ya-ge YOU, Zhen-xin HUANG, Wen-sheng WANG
2017, 31(3): 364-369. doi: 10.1007/s13344-017-0043-0
According to Newton’s Second Law and the microwave theory, mechanical analysis of multiple buoys which form Sharp Eagle wave energy converter (WEC) is carried out. The movements of every buoy in three modes couple each other when they are affected with incident waves. Based on the above, mechanical models of the WEC are established, which are concerned with fluid forces, damping forces, hinge forces, and so on. Hydrodynamic parameters of one buoy are obtained by taking the other moving buoy as boundary conditions. Then, by taking those hydrodynamic parameters into the mechanical models, the optimum external damping and optimal capture width ratio are calculated out. Under the condition of the optimum external damping, a plenty of data are obtained, such as the displacements amplitude of each buoy in three modes (sway, heave, pitch), damping forces, hinge forces, and speed of the hydraulic cylinder. Research results provide theoretical references and basis for Sharp Eagle WECs in the design and manufacture.
Experimental Investigation on the Hydrodynamic Performance of A Wave Energy Converter
Xiong-bo ZHENG, Yong MA, Liang ZHANG, Jin JIANG, Heng-xu LIU
2017, 31(3): 370-377. doi: 10.1007/s13344-017-0058-6
Wave energy is an important type of marine renewable energy. A wave energy converter (WEC) moored with two floating bodies was developed in the present study. To analyze the dynamic performance of the WEC, an experimental device was designed and tested in a tank. The experiment focused on the factors which impact the motion and energy conversion performance of the WEC. Dynamic performance was evaluated by the relative displacements and velocities of the oscillator and carrier which served as the floating bodies of WEC. Four factors were tested, i.e. wave height, wave period, power take-off (PTO) damping, and mass ratio (RM) of the oscillator and carrier. Experimental results show that these factors greatly affect the energy conversion performance, especially when the wave period matches RM and PTO damping. According to the results, we conclude that: (a) the maximization of the relative displacements and velocities leads to the maximization of the energy conversion efficiency; (b) the larger the wave height, the higher the energy conversion efficiency will be; (c) the relationships of energy conversion efficiency with wave period, PTO damping, and RM are nonlinear, but the maximum efficiency is obtained when these three factors are optimally matched. Experimental results demonstrated that the energy conversion efficiency reached the peak at 28.62% when the wave height was 120 mm, wave period was 1.0 s, RM was 0.21, and the PTO damping was corresponding to the resistance of 100 Ω.
Investigation on the Effect of Geometrical and Geotechnical Parameters on Elongated Offshore Piles Using Fuzzy Inference Systems
AMINFAR Ali, MOJTAHEDI Alireza, AHMADI Hamid, AMINFAR Mohammad Hossain
2017, 31(3): 378-388. doi: 10.1007/s13344-017-0044-z
Among numerous offshore structures used in oil extraction, jacket platforms are still the most favorable ones in shallow waters. In such structures, log piles are used to pin the substructure of the platform to the seabed. The pile’s geometrical and geotechnical properties are considered as the main parameters in designing these structures. In this study, ANSYS was used as the FE modeling software to study the geometrical and geotechnical properties of the offshore piles and their effects on supporting jacket platforms. For this purpose, the FE analysis has been done to provide the preliminary data for the fuzzy-logic post-process. The resulting data were implemented to create Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) classifications. The resultant data of the sensitivity analysis suggested that the orientation degree is the main factor in the pile’s geometrical behavior because piles which had the optimal operational degree of about 5° are more sustained. Finally, the results showed that the related fuzzified data supported the FE model and provided an insight for extended offshore pile designs.

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